1.212.642.4980     info@ansi.org    8:30am – 6pm EST, Monday – Friday
ANSI Standards Store

Browse ISO Standards
Browse IEC Standards

View all Publishers





View All Standards Packages



Search tips Search tips


Confined Spaces Safety Standards Confined Spaces Safety Standards address the health and safety of individuals in confined spaces. This includes the overall management and minimization of time spent within confined spaces, as well as the recommended preparation, training, equipment, and procedures for the various environments present therein.

go back to Workplace Safety Standards home


ANSI/ASABE S607 OCT2010 R2014)

Ventilating Manure Storages to Reduce Entry Risk

The primary purpose of this standard is to reduce risk from asphyxiation, poisoning, and explosions when entering confined space manure storages by specifying the positive pressure, forced ventilation requirements, including ventilation system layout, air exchange rates, and minimum ventilation times, for evacuation of contaminant gases from, and replenishment of oxygen into, empty or nearly empty covered or partially covered confined-space, on-farm, manure storages, reception tanks, agitation tanks and other similar containers that hold/contain manure prior to entry.


ANSI/ASSE Z117.1-2016

Safety Requirements for Entering Confined Spaces

This standard provides minimum safety requirements to be followed while entering, exiting and working in confined spaces at normal atmospheric pressure.


ANSI/ASSE Z117.1-2009 Package

Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces with Comparison Document for versions 1995, 2003 and 2009

This standard provides minimum safety requirements to be followed while entering, exiting and working in confined spaces at normal atmospheric pressure. Comparison document attempts to note the changes in the Z117.1 standard.


ANSI/ISA 92.04.01 Part I-2007 (R2013)

Requirements for Instruments Used To Detect Oxygen-Deficient/Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres

This standard addresses the details of construction, performance, and testing of portable, mobile, and stationary electrical instruments used to provide a warning of the presence of oxygen-deficient or oxygen-enriched atmospheres.


AS 2865-2009

Confined spaces (FOREIGN STANDARD)

Sets out the requirements and risk control measures for ensuring the safety of those who must enter or carry out tasks associated with a confined space. Contains Sections dealing with planning and implementing entry to a confined space. Appendices include guidance for training, risk assessment, atmospheric monitoring and sample forms and permits associated with confined space work.


AS/NZS 2865:2001

Safe working in a confined space (FOREIGN STANDARD)

Provides requirements and guidance in eliminating or minimizing the need to enter confined spaces and in avoiding hazards which may be encountered where entry to a confined space is unavoidable. Contains Sections dealing with risk identification and assessment, monitoring prior to entry, education and training as well as emergency response. Appendices provide additional guidance for cleaning and the precautions needed when undertaking hot work. A sample risk assessment form and written authority to enter are provided, as is a typical check list.


ASTM D4276-02(2012)

Standard Practice for Confined Area Entry

1.1 This practice covers recognized procedures necessary to protect the health and safety of workers required to enter confined spaces. These procedures are particularly applicable to entry into the confined areas associated with the use of halogenated organic solvents. 1.2 Confined areas addressed in this practice include, but are not limited to: vapor degreasers, cold cleaning tanks, storage vessels, tank cars and trucks, van trailers, ships or barges, pits or sumps, and unventilated rooms. 1.3 This practice does not necessarily address entry into all confined spaces nor does it address the decision strategy involved in requiring such entry. 1.4 Although this practice describes specific safety steps to be taken for entry into confined spaces, it is not intended to preclude the use of any additional measures that may be deemed necessary for a particular situation. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM F1764-97(2012)

Standard Guide for Selection of Hardline Communication Systems for Confined-Space Rescue

1.1 This guide covers recommended criteria for the selection of hardwire communication systems for use in permit-required confined-space rescue operations. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM F2209-14

Standard Guide for Training of Land Search Team Member

1.1 This guide establishes the minimum training requirements for land search personnel as it relates to their general, field, and search specific knowledge and skills. 1.2 A Land Search Team Member searches on the surface of the land only, including urban or disaster areas that may be isolated or have lost supporting infrastructure. 1.3 This guide does not provide the minimum training requirements for searching in partially or fully collapsed structures, in or on water, in confined spaces, or underground (such as caves, mines, and tunnels.) 1.4 Personnel trained to this guide are not qualified to perform rescue. No knots, rope, high angle or low angle litter, or other rescue skills are required of a Land Search Team Member. 1.5 Personnel trained to this guide are not qualified to operate in leadership positions. 1.6 Land Search Team Members are eligible to be members of Type II search teams or crews as defined in Classification F1993 . 1.7 Further training may be required before a Land Search Team Member can participate on a particular Kind of search team, depending on local needs, regulations, or policies of the authority having jurisdiction. 1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.


ASTM F2685-14

Standard Guide for Training of a Land Search Team Leader (STL)

1.1 This guide establishes the minimum training standard for Land Search Team Leaders as it relates to their general, field, and search-specific knowledge, skills, and experience. 1.2 A Land Search Team Leader searches on the surface of the land only, including urban or disaster areas that may be isolated or have lost supporting infrastructure. 1.3 This guide does not provide the minimum training requirements for searching in partially or fully collapsed structures, in or on water, in confined spaces, or underground (such as in caves, mines, and tunnels). 1.4 No knots, rope, litter, or other rescue skills are required of a Land Search Team Leader. 1.5 A Land Search Team Leader can be utilized as a field team leader, a single resource for sign cutting, a support person for a canine search team, and to establish search area boundaries in the field. 1.6 A Land Search Team Leader is eligible to supervise Type II search teams or crews as defined in Classification F1993. Type II teams which may utilize personnel trained to this standard are: 1.6.1 Kind A (wilderness); 1.6.2 Kind B (urban); 1.6.3 Kind C (mountainous); 1.6.4 Kind J (evidence/cadaver); 1.6.5 King K (missing aircraft). 1.7 Further training may be required before a Land Search Team Leader can participate on a particular kind of search team, depending on the AHJ s regulations or policies. 1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.


ASTM F2751-16

Standard Guide for Training of a Land Search and Rescue Team Member

1.1 This guide establishes the minimum training requirements, including general and field knowledge, skills, and abilities, for personnel who perform land search and rescue without ropes. 1.2 Land Search and Rescue Team Members perform search and rescue on the surface of the land only, including urban or disaster areas that may be isolated or have lost supporting infrastructure. 1.3 This guide does not provide the minimum training required for performing land rescue in partially or fully collapsed structures, in or on water, in confined spaces, underground (such as caves, mines, and tunnels), or in mountainous terrain. 1.4 Personnel trained to this guide alone are not qualified to direct rope rescues. No knots, rope work, or high angle or low angle rescue skills are included in this guide. 1.5 Personnel trained to this guide alone are not qualified to operate in leadership positions. 1.6 Personnel trained to this guide are eligible to be members of Type II search teams or crews as defined in Classification F1993 . 1.7 Further training may be required before a Land Search and Rescue Team Member can participate on a particular Kind of rescue team, depending on local needs, regulations, or policies of the authority having jurisdiction. 1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.


ASTM F2752-09(2014)

Standard Guide for Training for Level I Rope Rescue (R1) Rescuer Endorsement

1.1 This guide is intended to be used in conjunction with, and as an add-on to, Guide F2751 (or equivalent for other environments), to address specific skills required for a rescuer who participates in rope rescue as part of a larger rescue duty. 1.1.1 Specifically, a Rope Rescue Endorsement is intended to provide guidance whereby an endorsed rescuer (under qualified supervision) may assist and support basic rope rescue functions, including patient packaging, litter rigging, and basic rope rigging functions, in conjunction with other rescue duties. 1.1.2 This guide establishes the minimum training standard for an endorsed Level I Rope Rescuer as related to general, field, and rope rescue-specific knowledge and skills. 1.1.3 Endorsed Level I Rope Rescuers (LRT-R1) must work under direct supervision of qualified rope rescue personnel. 1.2 An endorsed LRT-R1 Rescuer rescues on the surface of the land only. This guide alone does not provide the minimum training requirements for rescuing in partially or fully collapsed structures, in or on water, in confined spaces, or underground (such as caves, mines, and tunnels). 1.3 An endorsed LRT-R1 Rescuer is required to have knowledge and skill sets pertaining to the basic roped evacuation and carryout components of rope rescue. Only basic knots, rigging, and other patient transport skills are required of an endorsed LRT-R1 Rescuer. 1.4 Type II teams which may utilize personnel trained to this guide are Kind A (wilderness), Kind B (urban), and Kind C (mountainous).


CGA P-39-2015

Guidelines for Oxygen-Rich Atmospheres - 3rd Edition

This publication identifies hazards inherent in oxygen-rich atmospheres and provides rules and recommendations for::- safe working practices where oxygen-rich atmospheres can occur; - preventing unexpected changes in the oxygen content of the atmosphere; and - limiting the effects of accidents if they occur.


CGA SB-15-2009

MANAGING HAZARDS IN CONFINED WORK SPACES DURING MAINTENANCE, CONSTRUCTION, AND SIMILAR ACTIVITIES

This publication identifies and gives general guidance on hazards and precautions in working in confined spaces.


CGA SB-2-2014

Safety Bulletin -Oxygen-Deficient Atmospheres

An oxygen-deficient atmosphere can bring about unconsciousness without warning. In as little as one or two breaths, an individual's life can be endangered by low oxygen intake. Oxygen-deficient atmospheres might not be limited to only confined spaces. They also can exist outside of a confined space opening. Table 1 describes a quantitative evaluation of the health effects and symptoms that can be expected in humans who inhale air containing less than normal levels of oxygen..


CSA Z1006-16

Z1006-16 - Management of work in confined spaces

Preface This is the second edition of CSA Z1006, Management of work in confined spaces. It supersedes the previous edition published in 2010. This Standard specifies requirements for and provides guidance on the activities required to manage all aspects of work in confined spaces in accordance with the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle and management system principles, such as those set out in CAN/CSA-Z1000-14, Occupational health and safety management. This Standard specifies requirements concerning management commitment, leadership, and participation, assignment of roles and responsibilities, identification of confined spaces, identification of hazards, risk assessment, selection and application of controls, design considerations, training, monitoring and measurement, emergency response, documentation, internal audits, and management reviews. Five informative Annexes provide guidance on implementing this StandardÆs normative requirements, including sample forms that can be customized for the specific needs of the user. Changes in this edition include a) improvement of the flow and readability of the document with the inclusion of additional flowcharts and tables and restructuring of content and clauses; b) addition of three informative Annexes to elaborate and provide additional information on rescue planning, atmospheric testing, monitoring, and instrumentation, and ventilation systems; c) harmonization of this Standard with CAN/CSA-Z1000, CAN/CSA-Z1001, and CAN/CSA-Z1002; and d) elaboration on the information regarding workspace design and modification. CSA acknowledges that the development of this Standard was made possible, in part, by the financial support of federal, provincial, and territorial occupational health and safety government agencies. Introduction This Standard provides a) an overview of the steps an organization needs to take to establish and maintain an effective confined space management program; b) safety information for workers entering confined spaces and for persons responsible for ensuring the safety of such workers; and c) requirements for confined space emergency preparedness and rescue. This Standard is consistent with CAN/CSA-Z1000 in that it is intended to help users integrate their confined space management program into an organizationÆs existing occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS). Like CAN/CSA-Z1000, this Standard is organized into clauses based on the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) model. However, use of this Standard is not contingent on an organization having an OHSMS. Clause 4 specifies general requirements for a comprehensive confined space management program. Clauses 5 to 8 specify requirements for planning and implementing a confined space management program. Clause 5 specifies roles and responsibilities. Clause 6 specifies requirements for hazard identification and risk assessment, development of entry procedures, emergency response planning, and assessment of worker capability for performing assigned duties within a confined space. Clause 7 specifies requirements related to training, Clause 8 specifies requirements related to controls, emergency response activities, and documentation. Clauses 9 and 10 specify requirements related to incident investigation and analysis, corrective actions, internal audits, and management reviews. These activities can help ensure worker safety and facilitate continual improvement of a confined space management program. Annexes A through E provide guidance on implementing this StandardÆs requirements and include sample forms. Scope 1.1 General This Standard is designed to be used with related occupational or technical standards. It is intended to be referenced by other standards as the primary set of requirements for health and safety management of work in confined spaces. This Standard is designed for voluntary application in Canadian workplaces. However, the principles established in this Standard are based on best practices recognized internationally. As such they can be applied to any workplace. Note: At the time of publication, confined space legislation differs from jurisdiction to jurisdiction in Canada. It is the userÆs responsibility to determine how applicable legislative requirements relate to this Standard. 1.2 Applications This Standard specifies requirements for a) establishing and maintaining a confined space management program in accordance with OHSMS principles; b) the roles and responsibilities of management, the entry team, and the emergency response team; c) identification and designation of confined spaces; d) design and engineering of confined spaces; e) hazard identification and risk assessment relating to work in confined spaces; f) management and control of hazards and risks associated with work in confined spaces; g) personal protective equipment (PPE) and other equipment used for work in confined spaces; h) general safety procedures for confined spaces; i) training for work in confined spaces; j) determining worker capability of performing assigned duties within confined spaces; k) emergency plans for rescuing workers in confined spaces; l) management of external service providers; and m) documentation. 1.3 Exclusions This Standard does not address safety management of a) enclosures or structures designed and constructed for continuous human occupancy; or b) underwater enclosures. Note: For underwater enclosures, see the requirements for penetration diving specified in CSA Z275.2. 1.4 Terminology In this Standard, shall is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; should is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and may is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the standard. Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material. Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements. Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application. 1.5 Units of measure The values given in SI units are the units of record for the purposes of this Standard. The values given in parentheses are for information and comparison only.


ISA RP92.04.02 Part 2-1996 (R2013)

Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Instruments Used to Detect Oxygen-Deficient/Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres


JIS T 8201:2010

Oxygen deficiency indicator (Foreign Standard)


NFPA 1006-2008

NFPA 1006: Standard for Technical Rescuer Professional Qualifications, 2008 Edition

Ensure that all your rescue technicians are up to the task. Apply the latest job criteria with the 2008 NFPA 1006. NFPA 1006: Technical Rescuer Professional Qualifications establishes the minimum job performance requirements necessary for fire service and other emergency response personnel who perform technical rescue operations. These include rope rescue, surface water rescue, vehicle and machinery rescue, confined space rescue, structural collapse rescue, subterranean rescue, dive rescue, wilderness rescue, and trench rescue. Among the significant changes in the expanded 2008 edition are: Water chapters have been organized by type of environment û surface, swift, dive, ice, and surf Division of the subterranean chapter into two chapters--Mines & Tunnels and Caves Each chapter has been split into two levels--Level I and Level II. Increase effectiveness and mitigate risks in an inherently dangerous occupation. Order today and put the 2008 NFPA 1006 to work for you. (Softbound, Approx. 82 pp., 2008)