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Forensic Fire Debris Investigation Standards Standards for the forensic investigation of fire debris describe the procedures involved in the analysis of fire debris samples, vapors, and residues, as well as the terminology and definitions underlying those procedures. Such standardization promotes consistency both within a single laboratory, and across different facilities, lending credibility to the results that are produced. Forensic fire debris investigation standards include the standard practices for the separation, concentration, sampling, and preservation of evidence from fire debris samples. Additionally, standards for reaction-to-fire tests are included, serving as a different perspective on the same problems that offers fresh insights.

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ASTM E1386-15

Standard Practice for Separation of Ignitable Liquid Residues from Fire Debris Samples by Solvent Extraction

1.1 This practice covers the procedure for removing small quantities of ignitable liquid residue from samples of fire debris using solvent to extract the residue. 1.2 This practice is suitable for successfully extracting ignitable liquid residues over a wide range of concentrations. 1.3 Alternate separation and concentration procedures are listed in the referenced documents (Practices E1388 , E1412 , E1413 , and E2154 ). 1.4 This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This standard cannot replace knowledge, skill, or ability acquired through appropriate education, training, and experience and should be used in conjunction with sound professional judgment. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For a specific hazard statement, see 5.5 .


ASTM E1388-12

Standard Practice for Sampling of Headspace Vapors from Fire Debris Samples

1.1 This practice describes the procedure for removing small quantities of ignitable liquid vapor from samples of fire debris by sampling the headspace of the debris container. 1.2 Separation and concentration procedures are listed in the referenced documents. (See Practices E1386 , E1412 , E1413 , and E2154 .) 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM E1412-16

Standard Practice for Separation of Ignitable Liquid Residues from Fire Debris Samples by Passive Headspace Concentration With Activated Charcoal

1.1 This practice describes the procedure for separation of small quantities of ignitable liquid residues from samples of fire debris using an adsorbent material to extract the residue from the static headspace above the sample, then eluting the adsorbent with a solvent. 1.2 While this practice is suitable for successfully extracting ignitable liquid residues over the entire range of concentration, the headspace concentration methods are best used when a high level of sensitivity is required due to a very low concentration of ignitable liquid residues in the sample. 1.3 Alternate separation and concentration procedures are listed in the referenced documents (see Practices E1386 , E1388 , E1413 , and E2154 ). 1.4 This practice does not replace knowledge, skill, ability, experience, education, or training and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM E1618-14

Standard Test Method for Ignitable Liquid Residues in Extracts from Fire Debris Samples by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

1.1 This test method covers the identification of residues of ignitable liquids in extracts from fire debris samples. Extraction procedures are described in the referenced documents. 1.2 Although this test method is suitable for all samples, it is especially appropriate for extracts that contain high background levels of substrate materials or pyrolysis and combustion products. This test method is also suitable for the identification of single compounds, simple mixtures, or non-petroleum based ignitable liquids. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This practice cannot replace knowledge, skill, or ability acquired through appropriate education, training, and experience and should be used in conjunction with sound professional judgment. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM E2154-15a

Standard Practice for Separation and Concentration of Ignitable Liquid Residues from Fire Debris Samples by Passive Headspace Concentration with Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME)

1.1 This practice describes the procedure for removing small quantities of ignitable liquid residues from samples of fire debris. An adsorbent material is used to extract the residue from the static headspace above the sample. Then, analytes are thermally desorbed in the injection port of the gas chromatograph (GC). 1.2 This practice is best suited for screening fire debris samples to assess relative ignitable liquid concentration and for extracting ignitable liquid from aqueous samples. 1.3 This practice is suitable for extracting ignitable liquid residues when a high level of sensitivity is required due to a very low concentration of ignitable liquid residues in the sample. 1.4 Alternate separation and concentration procedures are listed in Section 2 . 1.5 This standard cannot replace knowledge, skill, or ability acquired through appropriate education, training, and experience and should be used in conjunction with sound professional judgment. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM E2451-13

Standard Practice for Preserving Ignitable Liquids and Ignitable Liquid Residue Extracts from Fire Debris Samples

1.1 This practice describes procedures for preserving residues of ignitable liquids in extracts obtained from fire debris samples and questioned ignitable liquid samples. Extraction procedures are described in the Referenced Documents. 1.2 This practice does not attempt to address all the issues regarding the short-term or long-term storage of ignitable liquid samples and ignitable liquid extracts from fire debris samples. The changes that may occur under various storage conditions have not been fully documented. 1.3 This practice cannot replace knowledge, skill, or ability acquired through appropriate education, training, and experience and should be used in conjunction with sound professional judgment. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ISO 13785-1:2002

Reaction-to-fire tests for facades - Part 1: Intermediate-scale test

ISO 13785-1:2002 specifies a screening method for determining the reaction to fire of materials and constructions of fa ades or claddings when exposed to heat from a simulated external fire with flames impinging directly upon a fa ade. It is intended for use by producers to reduce the burden of testing in ISO 13785-2:2002 by eliminating those systems that fail the tests described in ISO 13785-1:2002. The test method consists of observing the behaviour of the fa ade panel construction to fire and the resulting flame spread on or within the fa ade construction. This test method is applicable only to fa ades and claddings that are not free standing and that are used by adding to an existing external wall. This test method also is applicable only to vertical elements and is not applicable to determining the structural strength of the fa ade or cladding.


ISO 13785-2:2002

Reaction-to-fire tests for facades - Part 2: Large-scale test

ISO 13785-2:2002 specifies a method of test for determining the reaction to fire of materials and construction of fa ade claddings when exposed to heat and flames from a simulated interior compartment fire with flames emerging through a window opening and impinging directly on the fa ade. The information generated from this test may also be applicable to the scenario of an external fire impinging on a fa ade; however, the results may not be applicable for all fire exposure conditions. This method is applicable only to fa ades and claddings that are non-loadbearing. No attempt is made to determine the structural strength of the fa ade or cladding. This test is not intended to determine the fire behaviour of a given building fa ade. Details such as balconies, windows, window shutters, curtains, etc., are not considered in this test. This test does not include the risk of fire spread e.g. through the window details of the fa ade system as it only is constructed as a fa ade wall. There is clear evidence that an internal corner (also called a re-entrant corner) configuration produces a more intense fire exposure than a flat fa ade. The most commonly encountered internal re-entrant corner is with an angle of 90 . The test fa ade specimen therefore contains an internal corner with a re-entrant angle of 90 . The test method described is intended to evaluate the inclusion of combustible components within fa ades and claddings of buildings which are otherwise of non-combustible construction.


NFPA 921-2011

NFPA 921: Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations, 2011 Edition

New coverage in the 2011 NFPA 921 guides fire investigators through a complex process. Updated based on recent court cases, scientific data, and trends, the 2011 edition of NFPA 921: Guide for Fire & Explosion Investigations presents the information you need for reliable field work and conclusions that hold up in a court of law. Major revisions give fire investigators, litigators, and insurance professionals more comprehensive and effective guidance for todayÆs world. Major revisions in NFPA 921 help you render opinions that stand up to scrutiny: An all-new section on Report Review Procedure in Chapter 4 outlines the review process in fire investigation and discusses peer vs. technical review. Rewritten Chapter 18, Cause helps ensure fire investigators use scientific methodology when developing hypotheses, to avoid Daubert challenges resulting from the absence of supportive evidence, commonly known as ônegative corpus.ö Revised Chapter 21, Explosions includes a critical update of the science and technology affiliated with explosions, along with new illustrations and photos. Rewritten Chapter 23, Fire Deaths and Injuries explains how medical reports such as blood tests and tissue samples can help investigators determine fire origin and cause. Learn when to request toxicology reports and how to interpret findings. Chapter 25, Motor Vehicle Fires introduces expanded sections covering recreational vehicles and agricultural equipment. Only the 2011 NFPA 921 includes complete data on all types of vehicles, including electric/hybrids. Revised Chapter 26, Wildfires has new visuals to assist personnel charged with investigations involving this growing fire problem. Updated Chapter 12, Safety explores major risks and covers PPE and other safety protocols that protect fire investigators on the job. Use the 2011 NFPA 921's total system for safe and accurate fire investigations. The 2011 NFPA 921 addresses everything from basic methodology to collecting evidence to failure analysis. Guidelines cover all types of incidents from residential fires to management of complex investigations such as high-rise fires and industrial plant explosions. The latest edition is essential for fire service members, bomb/arson and forensic specialists, insurance professionals, attorneys, and trainers. (Softbound, Approx. 357 pp., 2011)


NFPA 921-2014

Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations, 2014 Edition