1.212.642.4980     info@ansi.org    8:30am – 6pm EST, Monday – Friday
ANSI Standards Store

Browse ISO Standards
Browse IEC Standards

View all Publishers





View All Standards Packages



Search tips Search tips


Radiation Hardness Material Testing Standards Radiation-Hardness Standards provide guides and standard practices for testing the effects of radiation on electronics, their components, and their systems. In addition to electronics, some of these methods can be applied to other materials. These standards address both the source of the radiation and the detector, as well as the test environment and applicability of the results.

go back to Material Testing Standards home


ASTM E722-14

Standard Practice for Characterizing Neutron Fluence Spectra in Terms of an Equivalent Monoenergetic Neutron Fluence for Radiation-Hardness Testing of Electronics

1.1 This practice covers procedures for characterizing neutron fluence from a source in terms of an equivalent monoenergetic neutron fluence. It is applicable to neutron effects testing, to the development of test specifications, and to the characterization of neutron test environments. The sources may have a broad neutron-energy range, or may be mono-energetic neutron sources with energies up to 20 MeV. This practice is not applicable in cases where the predominant source of displacement damage is from neutrons of energy less than 10 keV. The relevant equivalence is in terms of a specified effect on certain physical properties of materials upon which the source spectrum is incident. In order to achieve this, knowledge of the effects of neutrons as a function of energy on the specific property of the material of interest is required. Sharp variations in the effects with neutron energy may limit the usefulness of this practice in the case of mono-energetic sources. 1.2 This practice is presented in a manner to be of general application to a variety of materials and sources. Correlation between displacements ( 1- 3 ) 2 caused by different particles (electrons, neutrons, protons, and heavy ions) is beyond the scope of this practice. In radiation-hardness testing of electronic semiconductor devices, specific materials of interest include silicon and gallium arsenide, and the neutron sources generally are test and research reactors and californium-252 irradiators. 1.3 The technique involved relies on the following factors: (1) a detailed determination of the fluence spectrum of the neutron source, and (2) a knowledge of the degradation (damage) effects of neutrons as a function of energy on specific material properties. 1.4 The detailed determination of the neutron fluence spectrum referred to in 1.3 need not be performed afresh for each test exposure, provided the exposure conditions are repeatable. When the spectrum determination is not repeated, a neutron fluence monitor shall be used for each test exposure.


ASTM E668-13

Standard Practice for Application of Thermoluminescence-Dosimetry (TLD) Systems for Determining Absorbed Dose in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Electronic Devices

1.1 This practice covers procedures for the use of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) to determine the absorbed dose in a material irradiated by ionizing radiation. Although some elements of the procedures have broader application, the specific area of concern is radiation-hardness testing of electronic devices. This practice is applicable to the measurement of absorbed dose in materials irradiated by gamma rays, X rays, and electrons of energies from 12 to 60 MeV. Specific energy limits are covered in appropriate sections describing specific applications of the procedures. The range of absorbed dose covered is approximately from 10 ???2 to 10 4 Gy (1 to 10 6 rad), and the range of absorbed dose rates is approximately from 10 ???2 to 10 10 Gy/s (1 to 10 12 rad/s). Absorbed dose and absorbed dose-rate measurements in materials subjected to neutron irradiation are not covered in this practice. (See Practice E2450 for guidance in mixed fields.) Further, the portion of these procedures that deal with electron irradiation are primarily intended for use in parts testing. Testing of devices as a part of more massive components such as electronics boards or boxes may require techniques outside the scope of this practice. Note 1 ??? The purpose of the upper and lower limits on the energy for electron irradiation is to approach a limiting case where dosimetry is simplified. Specifically, the dosimetry methodology specified requires that the following three limiting conditions be approached: ( a ) energy loss of the primary electrons is small, ( b ) secondary electrons are largely stopped within the dosimeter, and ( c ) bremsstrahlung radiation generated by the primary electrons is largely lost. 1.2 This standard dose not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM E721-16

Standard Guide for Determining Neutron Energy Spectra from Neutron Sensors for Radiation-Hardness Testing of Electronics

1.1 This guide covers procedures for determining the energy-differential fluence spectra of neutrons used in radiation-hardness testing of electronic semiconductor devices. The types of neutron sources specifically covered by this guide are fission or degraded energy fission sources used in either a steady-state or pulse mode. 1.2 This guide provides guidance and criteria that can be applied during the process of choosing the spectrum adjustment methodology that is best suited to the available data and relevant for the environment being investigated. 1.3 This guide is to be used in conjunction with Guide E720 to characterize neutron spectra and is used in conjunction with Practice E722 to characterize damage-related parameters normally associated with radiation-hardness testing of electronic-semiconductor devices. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM E720-16

Standard Guide for Selection and Use of Neutron Sensors for Determining Neutron Spectra Employed in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Electronics

1.1 This guide covers the selection and use of neutron-activation detector materials to be employed in neutron spectra adjustment techniques used for radiation-hardness testing of electronic semiconductor devices. Sensors are described that have been used at many radiation hardness-testing facilities, and comments are offered in table footnotes concerning the appropriateness of each reaction as judged by its cross-section accuracy, ease of use as a sensor, and by past successful application. This guide also discusses the fluence-uniformity, neutron self-shielding, and fluence-depression corrections that need to be considered in choosing the sensor thickness, the sensor covers, and the sensor locations. These considerations are relevant for the determination of neutron spectra from assemblies such as TRIGA- and Godiva-type reactors and from Californium irradiators. This guide may also be applicable to other broad energy distribution sources up to 20 MeV. 1.2 This guide also covers the measurement of the gamma-ray or beta-ray emission rates from the activation foils and other sensors as well as the calculation of the absolute specific activities of these foils. The principal measurement technique is high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The activities are used in the determination of the energy-fluence spectrum of the neutron source. See Guide E721 . 1.3 Details of measurement and analysis are covered as follows:... 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM E1249-15

Standard Practice for Minimizing Dosimetry Errors in Radiation Hardness Testing of Silicon Electronic Devices Using Co-60 Sources

1.1 This practice covers recommended procedures for the use of dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's), to determine the absorbed dose in a region of interest within an electronic device irradiated using a Co-60 source. Co-60 sources are commonly used for the absorbed dose testing of silicon electronic devices. 1.2 The principal potential error for the measurement of absorbed dose in electronic devices arises from non-equilibrium energy deposition effects in the vicinity of material interfaces. 1.3 Information is given about absorbed-dose enhancement effects in the vicinity of material interfaces. The sensitivity of such effects to low energy components in the Co-60 photon energy spectrum is emphasized. 1.4 A brief description is given of typical Co-60 sources with special emphasis on the presence of low energy components in the photon energy spectrum output from such sources. 1.5 Procedures are given for minimizing the low energy components of the photon energy spectrum from Co-60 sources, using filtration. The use of a filter box to achieve such filtration is recommended. 1.6 Information is given on absorbed-dose enhancement effects that are dependent on the device orientation with respect to the Co-60 source. 1.7 The use of spectrum filtration and appropriate device orientation provides a radiation environment whereby the absorbed dose in the sensitive region of an electronic device can be calculated within defined error limits without detailed knowledge of either the device structure or of the photon energy spectrum of the source, and hence, without knowing the details of the absorbed-dose enhancement effects.


ASTM E1250-15

Standard Test Method for Application of Ionization Chambers to Assess the Low Energy Gamma Component of Cobalt-60 Irradiators Used in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Silicon Electronic Devices

1.1 Low energy components in the photon energy spectrum of Co-60 irradiators lead to absorbed dose enhancement effects in the radiation-hardness testing of silicon electronic devices. These low energy components may lead to errors in determining the absorbed dose in a specific device under test. This method covers procedures for the use of a specialized ionization chamber to determine a figure of merit for the relative importance of such effects. It also gives the design and instructions for assembling this chamber. 1.2 This method is applicable to measurements in Co-60 radiation fields where the range of exposure rates is 7 10 6 to 3 10 2 C kg 1 s 1 (approximately 100 R/h to 100 R/s). For guidance in applying this method to radiation fields where the exposure rate is 100 R/s, see Appendix X1 . Note 1: See Terminology E170 for definition of exposure and its units. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM E512-94(2015)

Standard Practice for Combined, Simulated Space Environment Testing of Thermal Control Materials with Electromagnetic and Particulate Radiation

1.1 This practice describes procedures for providing exposure of thermal control materials to a simulated space environment comprising the major features of vacuum, electromagnetic radiation, charged particle radiation, and temperature control. 1.2 Broad recommendations relating to spectral reflectance measurements are made. 1.3 Test parameters and other information that should be reported as an aid in interpreting test results are delineated. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.