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Playground Equipment Safety Standards Several Playground Equipment Safety Standards have been developed by ASTM International (ASTM), defining safety specifications for playground equipment in an effort to make playgrounds safer for children. These standards address safety specifications for home and public playground equipment, trampolines, soccer goals, and inflatable play devices.

According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) more than 200,000 children 14 years of age and younger are treated for playground related injuries in hospital emergency rooms across the United States each year. These injuries ranged from bruises, lacerations, fractures, and sprains. These safety issues have proven to be costly in the dearest manner possible. Furthermore, in 1995, playground-related injuries among children ages 14 and younger cost over $1.2 billion.

The National Program for Playground Safety (NPPS) is a leader in advocating for the creation of safe public play environments for children and providing resources and information for safe outdoor play in the United States. They serve as advocates for children on issues that relate to playground safety before government and regulatory agencies. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is also committed to protecting children from sustaining injuries on the playground. The CPSC has written a handbook (PDF link) that contains important safety information for those who purchase, install, and maintain public playground equipment.

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ASTM F1487-11
Standard Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Playground Equipment for Public Use
1.1 This consumer safety performance specification provides safety and performance standards for various types of public playground equipment. Its purpose is to reduce life-threatening and debilitating injuries. 1.2 The range of users encompassed by this consumer safety performance specification is the 5th percentile 2-year-old through the 95th percentile 12-year-old. 1.3 Home playground equipment, toys, amusement rides, sports equipment, fitness equipment intended for users over the age of 12, public use play equipment for children 6 to 24 months, and soft contained play equipment are not included in this specification. 1.4 Products or materials (site furnishings) that are installed outside the equipment use zone, such as benches, tables, independent shade structures, and borders used to contain protective surfacing, are not considered playground equipment and are not included in this specification. 1.5 This specification does not address accessibility, except as it pertains to safety issues not covered in the DOJ 2010 Standard for Accessible Design.


ASTM F1148-12
Standard Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Home Playground Equipment
1.1 This consumer safety specification provides safety requirements for various types of home playground equipment intended for use by children aged from over eighteen months through 10 years. It further provides such requirements for swings intended specifically for toddlers. Different age limits for various requirements are found in this specification. These limits reflect the nature of the hazards and the expected mental or physical ability, or both, of the child to cope with the hazards. 1.2 Home playground equipment is defined as any product in which the support structure remains stationary while the activity is taking place and is intended for a child to perform any of the following activities: climbing, swinging, sliding, rocking, spinning, crawling, or creeping, or combination thereof. Fitness equipment is specifically excluded unless attached to the play equipment. This specification is not intended to apply to juvenile care products such as, but not limited to, infant swings, playpens/enclosures, beds, or furniture (including outdoor furniture, such as picnic tables, cradle rockers, activity centers being used as walker substitutes, bouncers, jumpers, infant carriers, and products specifically designed for therapeutic use). This specification is not intended to apply to equipment to be used in places of public assembly such as schools, nurseries, day-care centers, and parks. Equipment intended to be in child-care centers in private homes is not exempt from the requirements of this specification. Such centers are defined as situations in which the child-care provider does not care for more than six children under the age of ten that are not residing in the household of the caregiver, and the total number of children under the age of ten does not exceed ten, including the caregiver s own children. Electrically operated constant air inflatable devices are exempted from the requirements of this specification. 1.3 Methods of identifying products that comply with this consumer safety specification are given. The illustrations of home playground equipment shown in Figs. A1.1-A1.4 are for informational purposes only and are not intended to limit or endorse certain types of playground equipment or equipment features. These illustrations are not intended to limit the variety or various combinations of equipment that are covered by this consumer safety specification. 1.4 The purpose of this specification is to reduce the likelihood of life-threatening or debilitating injuries. 1.5 If toy accessories or toy chests are attached to home playground equipment, they are applicable to this consumer safety specification and to any other applicable safety standards. Note 1 See Annex A1 for figures referenced throughout this consumer safety performance specification. 1.6 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.


ASTM F2373-11
Standard Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Public Use Play Equipment for Children 6 Months through 23 Months
1.1 This consumer safety performance specification provides safety and performance requirements for various types of public use play equipment such as, but not limited to, composite play structures, climbing structures, to-fro swings, spring rocking equipment, and slides. It is intended to apply to play equipment that is used in places of public assembly, including early care and education facilities, parks, or playgrounds. Public use play areas for children in this age range include both indoor (classroom) settings and outdoor playgrounds. Where appropriate, distinctions will be made between indoor and outdoor settings where there is supervision (for example, a play area that is part of an early care and education facility), and settings with unlimited access (for example, public playgrounds and parks). 1.2 The range of users encompassed by this consumer safety performance specification is the 5th percentile 6 month old through the 95th percentile 23 month old. 1.3 The purpose of this specification is to reduce the potential for life threatening and debilitating injuries. 1.4 Accessory toys attached to play equipment must meet all relevant standards including this consumer safety performance specification. 1.5 Home playground equipment, amusement park equipment, sports equipment, fitness equipment, soft contained play equipment, tricycles, toys, juvenile care products such as, but not limited to, infant swings, play yards, expansion gates, and expandable enclosures, furniture (including child-sized house play furnishings and sand/water tables intended primarily for indoor use), bassinets and cradles, infant walkers, bouncer seats, jumpers, infant stationary activity centers, and infant carriers are not included in the scope of this specification.


ASTM F2729-12
Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Constant Air Inflatable Play Devices for Home Use
1.1 This consumer safety specification establishes performance requirements, test methods, and labeling requirements to promote the safe use of constant air inflatable play devices for private home use. Constant air inflatable play devices for home use that incorporate water play features and do not retain water are not considered as portable pools. Constant air inflatable play devices for home use that incorporate water play features and are intended to hold water for wading or water recreational purposes are applicable to the marking and labeling section of this specification. This specification does not apply to stored air inflatable swimming pools or sealed inflatable devices whether or not they retain water. 1.2 This consumer safety specification provides safety requirements for various types of constant air inflatable play devices for home use intended for children aged from two (2) years through twelve (12) years. 1.3 This consumer safety specification is intended to reduce the risk of death and minimize serious injury to children resulting from use of constant air inflatable play devices for home use. 1.4 No constant air inflatable play devices for home use produced after the approval date of this consumer safety specification shall, either by label or other means, indicate compliance with this specification unless it conforms to all requirements contained herein. The following statement is suggested for use in identifying a product that conforms to all requirements in this specification: 1.4.1 ???This product conforms to ASTM F2729, Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Constant Air Inflatable Play Device for Home Use.??? 1.5 The test values and dimensions stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The inch-pound values in parenthesis, when given, are for information only. 1.6 General Measures, Tolerances, and Conversions: 1.6.1 The general tolerances for this specification (unless otherwise specified) are as follows: Dimension Tolerance X ?? 12.7 mm ( X ?? 0.5 in.) X.X ?? 1.27 mm ( X.X ?? 0.05 in.) X.XX ?? 0.127 mm ( X.XX ?? 0.005 in.) These tolerances still apply to a dimension even when terms like greater than, less than, minimum, or maximum are used. 1.6.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units that are provided for information only. 1.6.3 The conversion factor from SI to inch-pound units is 25.4 mm = 1 in., and 0.45359 kg = 1 lb. 1.7 The following precautionary caveat pertains only to the test methods portion of this consumer safety specification: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM F1918-12
Standard Safety Performance Specification for Soft Contained Play Equipment
1.1 This safety performance specification provides safety and performance standards for soft contained play equipment. Its purpose is to reduce the potential for life-threatening and debilitating injuries. 1.2 The range of users encompassed by this safety performance specification is the 5 th percentile 2 year old to the 95 th percentile 12 year old. 1.3 Public playground equipment, home playground equipment, sports equipment, amusement rides, fitness equipment not part of the play system, water-related attractions and devices, and toys and juvenile products are not included in this specification. 1.4 This specification does not address accessibility, except as it pertains to safety issues not covered in The Americans With Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG).


ASTM F2075-10a
Standard Specification for Engineered Wood Fiber for Use as a Playground Safety Surface Under and Around Playground Equipment
1.1 This specification establishes minimum characteristics for those factors that determine particle size, consistency, purity, and ability to drain. 1.2 Engineered wood fiber that meets the requirements of this specification must comply with Specification F1292 , if the surface is in the use zone as defined in Specification F1487 . 1.3 A sample of wood fiber that meets the requirements of this specification may be designated engineered wood fiber and be suitable for playground safety surfacing. 1.4 This specification does not imply that an injury cannot be incurred if the engineered wood fiber complies with this specification. 1.5 To meet the requirements of this specification, the material shall perform as follows: 1.5.1 The material shall meet particle size requirements. 1.5.2 The material shall meet the requirement for metal particles. 1.5.3 The material shall meet the allowable heavy metal concentrations considered hazardous to children. 1.5.4 The material shall meet the requirements of Specification F1292 . 1.6 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parentheses are mathematical conversions. SI units, which are provided for information, are not considered the standard, except in 8.4. 1.7 Warning Mercury has been designated by EPA and many state agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney, and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA s website (http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm) for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury or mercury-containing products, or both, in your state may be prohibited by state law. 1.8 The following precautionary statement pertains to the test method portions only, in 7.4, 8.4, and 9.4 of this specification: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM F2049-11
Standard Safety Performance Specification for Fences/Barriers for Public, Commercial, and Multi-Family Residential Use Outdoor Play Areas
1.1 This specification provides the recommended minimum requirements for denoting various types of fences/barriers for the protection of children's outdoor play spaces in public, commercial, and multi-family residential use locations. This specification excludes individual single family residential use play equipment locations. Interior fences located in a play area that has a perimeter fence established shall only have to comply with the latch height requirement indicated in 7.6.2. 1.2 This specification provides for the safety of occupants in play areas or zones as it pertains to vehicular intrusion as well as other participant intrusion, and for children containment or entry/exit. This specification has the intent to also keep children inside a predetermined area in an effort to enhance supervision; to keep children from running out of the area into water and other hazards; to minimize the likelihood of facial lacerations on low gate and fence hardware; to minimize the likelihood of abduction; and to restrict access to railroads, highways, roads, and other such hazards. 1.3 This specification does not choose the product components for the fence system, the choice of which should be made by the operators of the play space and their specification writers or drafters based upon their determination of the merits of the products that could be used. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The SI values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This specification does not purport to address the aspect of safety within a play area or zone. It is the responsibility of the user of this specification to establish appropriate safety practices as related to the play area and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.


ASTM F2225-13
Standard Safety Specification for Consumer Trampoline Enclosures
1.1 This safety specification covers the components, assembly, use, labeling, and performance requirements of consumer trampoline enclosures (see Safety Specification F381). 1.2 This specification is applicable to trampoline enclosures to be sold as an accessory to or packaged with trampolines of ( 1 ) a minimum bed size of 3300 in. 2 (2.1 m 2 ), ( 2 ) a minimum height of 20 in. (510 mm), ( 3 ) intended for the purpose of continuous, vertical jumping activities, and ( 4 ) intended for consumer use.


ASTM F381-14
Standard Safety Specification for Components, Assembly, Use, and Labeling of Consumer Trampolines
1.1 This safety specification covers the components, the assembly, and the use of consumer trampolines. 1.2 This specification is delimited in its application to trampolines of ( 1 ) a minimum bed size of 3300 in. 2 (21 300 cm 2 ), ( 2 ) a minimum height of 20 in. (51 cm), ( 3 ) intended for the purpose of continuous, vertical jumping activities and ( 4 ) intended for consumer use. 1.3 This specification is intended ( 1 ) to reduce the demonstrated hazards associated with the use of trampolines by consumers; ( 2 ) for trampolines used in a home environment by a single user; and ( 3 ) not to apply to institutional trampolines or trampolines intended for use on water. Trampolines that adhere to this specification are not recommended for use by children under six years of age. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the hazards associated with trampolines. The standard s existence alone will not necessarily prevent injuries. Like other physical activities, trampoline use involves the risk of injury, particularly if the equipment is used improperly. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM F2056-09
Standard Safety and Performance Specification for Soccer Goals
1.1 This standard specifies safety and performance requirements aimed at providing for safer use of soccer goals and reducing injuries and fatalities. 1.2 This standard applies to soccer goals for training and competition in outdoor sports facilities and indoor arenas. 1.3 This standard addresses the risk of accidental tipover or pullover of soccer goals. 1.4 This standard is based upon safety and design requirements listed in EN 748. 1.5 This standard applies only to goals whose inside measurements are 6 to 8 ft high and 18 to 24 ft wide. 1.6 This standard replaces PS 75 99.


ASTM F2673-08
Standard Safety Specification for Special Tip-Resistant Movable Soccer Goals
1.1 This specification covers safety requirements aimed at providing for safer use of soccer goals and reducing injuries and fatalities. 1.2 This specification addresses the risk of accidental tip over or pull over of soccer goals. 1.3 This specification applies only to movable goals whose inside measurements are 6 to 8 ft (2 to 2.4 m) high and 18 to 24 ft (5.5 to 7.3 m) wide. 1.4 This specification applies only to movable goals meeting all criteria in Guide F 1938 and Safety and Performance Specification F 2056 and, in addition, meets criteria for tip resistance before installation. 1.5 This specification covers special tip-resistant goals that are intended to complement standard goals meeting Guide F 1938 and Safety and Performance Specification F 2056 . These goals are designed to provide some additional degree of safety if, by accident, they are not tied down or tied down incorrectly. 1.6 This specification simulates two boys up to twelve years of age swinging together from the X-bar. Note 1 Injury data supplied to the committee indicates that approximately 75 % (74 %) of the fatalities (1979-2003) were three to twelve years of age. 1.7 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM F1292-13
Standard Specification for Impact Attenuation of Surfacing Materials Within the Use Zone of Playground Equipment
1.1 This specification establishes minimum performance requirements for the impact attenuation of playground surfacing materials installed within the use zone of playground equipment. 1.2 This specification is specific to surfacing used in conjunction with playground equipment, such as that described in Specifications F1148, F1487, F1918, F1951, and F2075. 1.3 This specification establishes an impact attenuation performance criterion for playground surfacing materials; expressed as a critical fall height. 1.4 This specification establishes procedures for determining the critical fall height of playground surfacing materials under laboratory conditions. The laboratory test is mandatory for surfaces to conform to the requirements of this specification. 1.5 The laboratory test required by this specification addresses the performance of dry surfacing materials. 1.6 The critical fall height of a playground surfacing material determined under laboratory conditions does not account for important factors that have the potential to influence the actual performance of installed surfacing materials. Factors that are known to affect surfacing material performance include but are not limited to aging, moisture, maintenance, exposure to temperature extremes (for example, freezing), exposure to ultraviolet light, contamination with other materials, compaction, loss of thickness, shrinkage, submersion in water, and so forth. 1.7 This specification also establishes a procedure for testing installed playground surfaces in order to determine whether an installed playground surface meets the specified performance criterion. 1.8 The results of a field test determine conformance of installed playground surfacing materials with the criterion of this specification and are specific to the ambient conditions under which the test was performed. 1.9 The impact attenuation specification and test methods established in this specification are specific to the risk of head injury. There is only limited evidence that conformance with the requirements of this specification reduces the risk of other kinds of serious injury (for example, long bone fractures). Note 1 The relative risk of fatality and of different degrees of head injury may be estimated using the information in Appendix X1 , which shows the relationships between the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) scores of an impact and the probability of head injury.


ASTM F1951-09b
Standard Specification for Determination of Accessibility of Surface Systems Under and Around Playground Equipment
1.1 This specification establishes minimum characteristics for those factors that determine accessibility. This specification applies to all types of materials that can be used under and around playground equipment. 1.2 The material under and around playground equipment that meets this specification must also comply with Specification F 1292 if the surface is within the fall zone. 1.3 This specification does not imply that an injury cannot be incurred if the surface system complies with this specification. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. (See ASTM SI10 .) 1.5 The following precautionary statement pertains only to the test method portions, Sections 6 and 7, of this specification: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


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