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ASTM International, founded as the American Society for Testing and Materials, is a nonprofit organization that develops and publishes approximately 12,000 technical standards, covering the procedures for testing and classification of materials of every sort. Headquartered in West Conshohocken, United States, ASTM standards are used worldwide, with its membership consisting of over 30,000 members representing 135 countries. ASTM also serves as the administrator for the U.S. TAGs (United States Technical Advisory Group) to an enormous amount of ISO/TCs (International Organization for Standardization/Technical Committee) and to their subcommittees. Standards from ASTM are available both individually, directly through the ANSI webstore, and as part of a Standards Subscription. If you or your organization are interested in easy, managed, online access to standards that can be shared, a Standards Subscription may be what you need - please contact us at: StandardsSubscriptions@ansi.org or 1-212-642-4980 or Request Proposal Price.

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ASTM D4169-16

Standard Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and Systems

1.1 This practice provides a uniform basis of evaluating, in a laboratory, the ability of shipping units to withstand the distribution environment. This is accomplished by subjecting them to a test plan consisting of a sequence of anticipated hazard elements encountered in various distribution cycles. This practice is not intended to supplant material specifications or existing preshipment test procedures.

1.2 Consider the use of Practice D7386 for testing of packages for single parcel shipments.

1.3 The suitability of this practice for use with hazardous materials has not been determined.

1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM E2018-15

Standard Guide for Property Condition Assessments: Baseline Property Condition Assessment Process

1.1 Purpose—The purpose of this guide is to define good commercial practice in the United States of America for conducting a baseline property condition assessment (PCA) of the improvements located on a parcel of commercial real estate by performing a walk-through survey and conducting research as outlined within this guide.

1.2 Objectives—Objectives in the development of this guide are to:...

1.3 Considerations Beyond Scope—The use of this guide is strictly limited to the scope set forth in this section. Section 11 and Appendix X1 of this guide identify, for informational purposes, certain physical conditions that may exist on the subject property, and certain activities or procedures (not an all inclusive list) that are beyond the scope of this guide but may warrant consideration by parties to a commercial real estate transaction to enhance the PCA.


ASTM B117-19

Standard Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus

1.1 This practice covers the apparatus, procedure, and conditions required to create and maintain the salt spray (fog) test environment. Suitable apparatus which may be used is described in Appendix X1.

1.2 This practice does not prescribe the type of test specimen or exposure periods to be used for a specific product, nor the interpretation to be given to the results.

1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM E1527-21

Standard Practice for Environmental Site Assessments: Phase I Environmental Site Assessment Process

1.1Purpose - The purpose of this practice is to define good commercial and customary practice in the United States of America for conducting an environmental site assessment2 of a parcel of commercial real estate with respect to the range of contaminants within the scope of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. § 9601) and petroleum products. As such, this practice is intended to permit a user to satisfy one of the requirements to qualify for the innocent landowner, contiguous property owner, or bona fide prospective purchaser limitations on CERCLA liability (hereinafter, the "landowner liability protections," or "LLPs"): that is, the practice that constitutes all appropriate inquiries into the previous ownership and uses of the property consistent with good commercial and customary standards and practices as defined at 42 U.S.C. § 9601(35)(B). (See Appendix X1 for an outline of CERCLA's liability and defense provisions.) Controlled substances are not included within the scope of this practice. Persons conducting an environmental site assessment as part of an EPA Brownfields Assessment and Characterization Grant awarded under CERCLA 42 U.S.C. § 9604(k)(2)(B) must include controlled substances as defined in the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. § 802) within the scope of the assessment investigations to the extent directed in the terms and conditions of the specific grant or cooperative agreement. Additionally, an evaluation of business environmental risk (BER) associated with a parcel of commercial real estate may necessitate investigation beyond that identified in this practice (see 1.4 and Section 13).

1.1.1Recognized Environmental Conditions - The goal of the processes established by this practice is to identify recognized environmental conditions. The term recognized environmental condition means (1) the presence of hazardous substances or petroleum products in, on, or at the subject property due to a release to the environment; (2) the likely presence of hazardous substances or petroleum products in, on, or at the subject property due to a release or likely release to the environment; or (3) the presence of hazardous substances or petroleum products in, on, or at the subject property under conditions that pose a material threat of a future release to the environment. A de minimis condition is not a recognized environmental condition.

1.1.2Petroleum Products - Petroleum products are included within the scope of this practice because they are of concern with respect to commercial real estate and current custom and usage is to include an inquiry into the presence of petroleum products when doing an environmental site assessment of commercial real estate. Inclusion of petroleum products within the scope of this practice is not based upon the applicability, if any, of CERCLA to petroleum products.

1.1.3CERCLA Requirements Other Than Appropriate Inquiries - This practice does not address whether requirements in addition to all appropriate inquiries have been met in order to qualify for the LLPs (for example, the duties specified in 42 U.S.C. §§ 9607(b)(3)(a) and (b) and cited in Appendix X1, including the continuing obligation not to impede the integrity and effectiveness of activity and use limitations [AULs], or the duty to take reasonable steps to prevent releases, or the duty to comply with legally required release reporting obligations).

1.1.4Other Federal, State, and Local Environmental Laws - This practice does not address requirements of any state or local laws or of any federal laws other than the all appropriate inquiries provisions of the LLPs. Users are cautioned that federal, state, and local laws may impose environmental assessment obligations that are beyond the scope of this practice. Users should also be aware that there are likely to be other legal obligations with regard to hazardous substances or petroleum products discovered in, on, or at the subject property that are not addressed in this practice and that may pose risks of civil and/or criminal sanctions for noncompliance.3

1.1.5Documentation - The scope of this practice includes research and reporting requirements that support the user's ability to qualify for the LLPs. As such, sufficient documentation of all sources, records, and resources utilized in conducting the inquiry required by this practice must be provided in the written report (refer to 8.1.9 and 12.2).

1.2Objectives - Objectives guiding the development of this practice are (1) to synthesize and put in writing good commercial and customary practice for environmental site assessments for commercial real estate; (2) to facilitate high quality, standardized environmental site assessments; (3) to provide a practical and reasonable standard practice for conducting all appropriate inquiries; and (4) to clarify an industry standard for all appropriate inquiries in an effort to guide legal interpretation of the LLPs.

1.3Units - The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.4Considerations beyond Scope - The use of this practice is strictly limited to the scope set forth in this section. Section 13 of this practice identifies, for informational purposes, certain environmental conditions (not an all-inclusive list) that may exist at a subject property that are beyond the scope of this practice, but may warrant consideration by parties to a commercial real estate transaction. The need to include an investigation of any such conditions in the environmental professional's scope of services should be evaluated based upon, among other factors, the nature of the subject property and the reasons for performing the assessment (for example, a more comprehensive evaluation of business environmental risk) and should be agreed upon between the user and environmental professional as additional services beyond the scope of this practice before initiation of the environmental site assessment process.

1.5This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word "Standard" in the title means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.

1.6This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.7This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM F88/F88M-15

Standard Test Method for Seal Strength of Flexible Barrier Materials

1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the strength of seals in flexible barrier materials.

1.2 The test may be conducted on seals between a flexible material and a rigid material.

1.3 Seals tested in accordance with this test method may be from any source, laboratory or commercial.

1.4 This test method measures the force required to separate a test strip of material containing the seal. It also identifies the mode of specimen failure.

1.5 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM F1980-16

Standard Guide for Accelerated Aging of Sterile Barrier Systems for Medical Devices

1.1 This guide provides information for developing accelerated aging protocols to rapidly determine the effects, if any, due to the passage of time on the sterile integrity of the sterile barrier system (SBS), as defined in ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11607–1:2006 and the physical properties of their component packaging materials.

1.2 Information obtained using this guide may be used to support expiration date claims for medical device sterile barrier systems.

1.3 The accelerated aging guideline addresses the sterile barrier systems in whole with or without devices. The sterile barrier system material and device interaction compatibility that may be required for new product development or the resulting evaluation is not addressed in this guide.

1.4 Real-time aging protocols are not addressed in this guide; however, it is essential that real-time aging studies be performed to confirm the accelerated aging test results using the same methods of evaluation.

1.5 Methods used for sterile barrier system validation, which include the machine process, the effects of the sterilization process, environmental challenge, distribution, handling, and shipping events, are beyond the scope of this guide.

1.6 This guide does not address environmental challenging that stimulates extreme climactic conditions that may exist in the shipping and handling environment. Refer to Practice D4332 for standard conditions that may be used to challenge the sterile barrier system to realistic extremes in temperature and humidity conditions. See Terminology F1327 for a definition of “environmental challenging.”

1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM D3359-17

Standard Test Methods for Rating Adhesion by Tape Test

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for assessing the adhesion of relatively ductile coating films to metallic substrates by applying and removing pressure-sensitive tape over cuts made in the film.

1.2 Test Method A is primarily intended for use in the field while Test Method B is more suitable for use in laboratory or shop environments. Also, Test Method B is not considered suitable for films thicker than 125μm (5 mils) unless wider spaced cuts are employed and there is an explicit agreement between the purchaser and seller.

1.3 These test methods are used to evaluate whether the adhesion of a coating to a substrate is adequate for the user’s application. They do not distinguish between higher levels of adhesion for which more sophisticated methods of measurement are required.

1.4 This test method is similar in content (but not technically equivalent) to ISO 2409.

1.5 In multicoat systems adhesion failure may occur between coats so that the adhesion of the coating system to the substrate is not determined.

1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

1.7 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM F2096-11(2019)

Standard Test Method for Detecting Gross Leaks in Packaging by Internal Pressurization (Bubble Test)

1.1 This test method covers the detection of gross leaks in packaging. Method sensitivity is down to 250 μm (0.010 in.) with an 81 % probability (see Section 11). This test method may be used for tray and pouch packages.

1.2 The sensitivity of this test method has not been evaluated for use with porous materials other than spunbonded polyolefin or with nonporous packaging.

1.3 This test method is destructive in that it requires entry into the package to supply an internal air pressure

1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM E1417/E1417M-21

Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Testing

1.1This practice establishes the minimum requirements for conducting liquid penetrant examination of nonporous metal and nonmetal components.

Note 1:This practice replaces MIL-STD-6866.

1.2The penetrant examination processes described in this practice are applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance (in-service) examinations. These processes are applicable for the detection of discontinuities, such as lack of fusion, corrosion, cracks, laps, cold shuts, and porosity, that are open or connected to the surface of the component under examination.

1.3Caution must be exercised in the usage of elevated temperature with components manufactured from thermoplastic materials. Also, some cleaners, penetrants, and developers can have a deleterious effect on nonmetallic materials such as plastics. Prior to examination, tests should be conducted to ensure that none of the cleaning or examination materials are harmful to the components to be examined.

1.4Units - The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system are not necessarily exact equivalents; therefore, to ensure conformance with the standard, each system shall be used independently of the other, and values from the two systems shall not be combined.

1.5All areas of this practice may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization.

Note 2:Throughout this document, the term blacklight has been changed to UV-A to conform with the latest terminology in Terminology E1316. Blacklight can mean a broad range of ultraviolet radiation; fluorescent penetrant examination only uses the UV-A range.

1.6This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.7This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


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