Customer Service:
Mon - Fri: 8:30 am - 6 pm EST

100 Newest Standards and Packages


B11.TR10-2020

Functional Safety of Artificial Intelligence for Machinery Applications (B11 Technical Report)

This Technical Report provides guidance for the: implementation of functional safety principles in artificial intelligence (AI) programming when used as a means for machinery safety applications; effective communication between functional safety personnel (who provide the primary technical knowledge of machine(s) system hazards and the application of risk reduction measures) and data scientists / programmers with no or limited machine system knowledge, but who understand the capabilities and limitations of the AI system.


ANSI/ANS-2.2-2016 (R2020)

Earthquake Instrumentation Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

This standard specifies the required earthquake instrumentation at the site and on Seismic Category I structures of light-water-cooled, land-based nuclear power plants. It may be used for guidance at other types of nuclear facilities. This standard does not address the following: 1. instrumentation to shut down a nuclear power plant automatically at a predetermined parameter of the ground motion or the in-structure response; 2. procedures for evaluating records obtained from seismic instrumentation and instructions for the treatment of data. These procedures and instructions are specified in ANSI/ANS-2.23-2016; 3. instrumentation for nuclear power plant designs incorporating base isolation techniques.


ANSI/ANS-2.23-2016 (R2020)

Nuclear Power Plant Response to an Earthquake

This standard describes actions that the owner of a nuclear power plant shall take to prepare for and respond to a felt earthquake at the plant(s), including the need for plant shutdown; actions to determine the readiness of the plant to resume operation; and those evaluations necessary to verify the long-term integrity of safety-related and important structures, systems, and components. It also includes a consensus definition of operating basis earthquake exceedance, beyond which U.S. regulations require plant shutdown. Application of this revised standard provides a comprehensive, balanced plan for the response of a nuclear power plant to an earthquake.


ANSI X9.124-1-2020

Financial Services - Symmetric Key Cryptography for the Financial Services Industry - Format-Preserving Encryption - Part 1: Definition and Model

The ANSI X9.124 standard defines a collection of methods for encrypting data strings so that the length and the character set for the ciphertext is the same as those of the plaintext. This is called format-preserving encryption (FPE). These methods are useful in situations where fixed-format data, such as Primary Account Numbers (PANs) or Social Security Numbers (SSNs), must be encrypted, but there is a requirement to limit changes to existing communication protocols, database schemata or application code. Part 1 of this standard includes a set of definitions common to all FPE techniques, a security model for FPE block cipher techniques, and a description of the pseudocode language used in defining the mode specified in this document.


ANSI X9.124-1-2020/ANSI X9.124-2-2018

Financial Services - Symmetric Key Cryptography for the Financial Services Industry - Format-Preserving Encryption - Part 1: Definition and Model/Part 2: Key Stream with Counter Mode

X9.124 Symmetric Key Cryptography for the Financial Services Industry Format Preserving Encryption is a suite of standards consisting of five parts. Part 1 of this standard includes a set of definitions common to all FPE techniques, a security model for FPE block cipher techniques, and a description of the pseudocode language used in defining the mode specified in this document. Part 2 defines requirements for Format Preserving Encryption - Counter Mode (FPCM). FPCM methods encrypt data strings of a specific length and character set into ciphertext of the same length using the same character set and using the equivalent of Counter Mode (CTR) defined in NIST SP38B. Format Preserving Encryption is useful in situations where fixed-format data, such as Primary Account Numbers (PANs) or Social Security Numbers, must be encrypted, but there is a requirement to limit changes to existing communication protocols, database schemata or application code. FPCM is a particularly simple and efficient mechanism to achieve format preserving encryption, which shares many of the strengths and challenges of CTR.


ASTM A181/A181M-14(2020)

Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings, for General-Purpose Piping

1.1 This specification 2 covers nonstandard as-forged fittings, valve components, and parts for general service. Forgings made to this specification are limited to a maximum weight of 10 000 lb [4540 kg]. Larger forgings may be ordered to Specification A266/A266M . 1.2 Two classes of material are covered, designated as Classes 60 and 70, respectively, and are classified in accordance with their mechanical properties as specified in 6.1 . 1.3 This specification is expressed in both inch-pound units and SI units. However, unless the order specifies the applicable M specification designation (SI units), the material shall be furnished to inch-pound units. 1.4 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the specification. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM A255-20a

Standard Test Methods for Determining Hardenability of Steel

1.1 These test methods cover the identification and description of test methods for determining the hardenability of steels. The two test methods include the quantitative end-quench or Jominy Test and a method for calculating the hardenability of steel from the chemical composition based on the original work by M. A. Grossman. 1.2 The selection of the test method to be used for determining the hardenability of a given steel shall be agreed upon between the supplier and user. The Certified Material Test Report shall state the method of hardenability determination. 1.3 The calculation method described in these test methods is applicable only to the range of chemical compositions that follow: 1.4 Hardenability is a measure of the depth to which steel will harden when quenched from its austenitizing temperature ( Table 1 ). It is measured quantitatively, usually by noting the extent or depth of hardening of a standard size and shape of test specimen in a standardized quench. In the end-quench test the depth of hardening is the distance along the specimen from the quenched end which correlates to a given hardness level. 1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM A266/A266M-20

Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Pressure Vessel Components

1.1 This specification 2 covers four grades of carbon steel forgings for boilers, pressure vessels, and associated equipment. Note 1: Designations have been changed as follows: 1.2 Supplementary requirements are provided for use when additional testing or inspection is desired. These shall apply only when specified individually by the purchaser in the order. 1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. 1.4 Unless the order specifies the applicable M specification designation, the material shall be furnished to the inch-pound units. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM A459-08(2020)

Standard Specification for Zinc-Coated Flat Steel Armoring Tape

1.1 This specification covers requirements for zinc-coated flat steel tape in coils for use as interlocking armor and flat armor for electrical cables. The zinc-coated tape is produced with three classes of zinc coating weight. 1.2 Units The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM A511/A511M-20

Standard Specification for Seamless Stainless Steel Mechanical Tubing and Hollow Bar

1.1 This specification covers seamless stainless tubing for use in mechanical applications or as hollow bar for use in the production of hollow components such as, but not limited to nozzles, reducers, and couplings by machining where corrosion-resistant or high-temperature strength is needed. The grades covered are listed in Table 1 , Table 2 , and Table 3 . 1.2 This specification covers seamless cold-finished mechanical tubing and hollow bar and seamless hot-finished mechanical tubing and hollow bar in sizes up to 12 3 / 4 in. [325 mm] in outside nominal diameter (for round tubing) with wall thicknesses or inside diameters as required. 1.3 Tubes for mechanical applications shall be furnished in one of the following shapes, as specified by the purchaser: round, square, rectangular, or special. Tubes to be used as hollow bar shall be furnished in round shape. 1.4 Optional supplementary requirements are provided and when desired, shall be stated in the order. 1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in square brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM A703/A703M-20a

Standard Specification for Steel Castings, General Requirements, for Pressure-Containing Parts

1.1 This specification 2 covers a group of common requirements that, unless otherwise specified in an individual specification, shall apply to steel castings for pressure-containing parts under each of the following ASTM specifications: 1.2 This specification also covers a group of supplementary requirements which may be applied to the above specifications as indicated therein. These are provided for use when additional testing or inspection is desired and apply only when specified individually by the purchaser in the order. 1.3 In case of conflict between the requirements of the individual specification and this general specification, the former shall prevail. 1.4 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM A744/A744M-20a

Standard Specification for Castings, Iron-Chromium-Nickel, Corrosion Resistant, for Severe Service

1.1 This specification covers iron-chromium-nickel alloy, stainless steel castings intended for particularly severe corrosive applications. 1.2 This specification requires post-weld heat treatment of all weld repairs affecting surfaces intended to be wetted by the corrosive medium. For applications for which post-weld heat treatment is not considered mandatory for retention of acceptable corrosion resistance, refer to Specification A743/A743M . Note 1: For general corrosion-resistant alloy castings, reference should be made to Specification A743/A743M . For general heat-resistant alloy castings, reference should be made to Specification A297/A297M . For nickel-base alloy castings, refer to Specification A494/A494M . 1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. 1.3.1 Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. 1.3.2 Inch-pound units are applicable for material ordered to Specification A744 and SI units for material ordered to Specification A744M . 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM A781/A781M-20a

Standard Specification for Castings, Steel and Alloy, Common Requirements, for General Industrial Use

1.1 This specification covers a group of requirements that are mandatory requirements of the following steel casting specifications issued by ASTM. If the product specification specifies different requirements, the product specification shall prevail. 1.2 This specification also covers a group of supplementary requirements that may be applied to the above specifications as indicated therein. These are provided for use when additional testing or inspection is desired and apply only when specified individually by the purchaser in the order. 1.3 The requirements of the individual material specification and this general specification shall prevail in the sequence named. 1.4 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM A836/A836M-14(2020)

Standard Specification for Titanium-Stabilized Carbon Steel Forgings for Glass-Lined Piping and Pressure Vessel Service

1.1 This specification covers nonstandard as-forged fittings, valve components, and parts for glass-lined piping and pressure vessel service. Mechanical properties are certified on the basis of test material subjected to heat treatments to simulate glass-coating operations. 1.2 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the specification. The inch-pound units shall apply unless the M designation of this specification is specified in the order. 1.3 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM A847/A847M-20

Standard Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless High-Strength, Low-Alloy Structural Tubing with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance

1.1 This specification covers cold-formed welded and seamless high-strength, low-alloy round, square, rectangular, or special tubular shapes for welded, riveted, or bolted construction of bridges and buildings and for general structural purposes where high strength and enhanced atmospheric corrosion resistance are required ( Note 1 ). The atmospheric corrosion resistance of this steel in most environments is substantially better than carbon steel with or without copper addition ( Note 2 ). When properly exposed to the atmosphere, this steel can be used bare (unpainted) for many applications. When this steel is used in welded construction, the welding procedure shall be suitable for the steel and the intended service. 1.2 This tubing is produced in welded sizes with a maximum periphery of 88 in. [2235 mm] and a maximum wall of 1 in. [25.4 mm], and in seamless with a maximum periphery of 32 in. [813 mm] and a maximum wall of 0.500 in. [12.7 mm]. Tubing having other dimensions may be furnished provided such tubing complies with all other requirements of this specification. Note 1: Products manufactured to this specification may not be suitable for those applications where low temperature notch toughness properties may be important, such as dynamically loaded elements in welded structures, unless ordered with toughness tests. See the Supplementary Requirements. Note 2: For methods of estimating the atmospheric corrosion resistance of low alloy steels, see Guide G101 or actual data. 1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM A990/A990M-20

Standard Specification for Castings, Iron-Nickel-Chromium and Nickel Alloys, Specially Controlled for Pressure-Retaining Parts for Corrosive Service

1.1 This specification covers iron-nickel-chromium and nickel alloy castings specially processed with restricted melt practices, weldability testing, and nondestructive examination (NDE) requirements. 1.2 A number of grades of iron-nickel-chromium and nickel alloy castings are included in this specification. Since these grades possess varying degrees of suitability for service in corrosive environments, it is the responsibility of the purchaser to determine which grade shall be furnished. Selection will depend on design and service conditions, mechanical properties, and corrosion-resistant characteristics. 1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. 1.3.1 This specification is expressed in both inch-pound units and in SI units; however, unless the purchase order or contract specifies the applicable M-specification designation (SI units), the inch-pound units shall apply. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM B215-20

Standard Practices for Sampling Metal Powders

1.1 These practices cover sampling methods used to collect a small quantity of metal powder that is as representative of the entire starting material as possible, and detail the procedures that are recommended for reducing this quantity into smaller test portions on which chemical, physical, and mechanical property data may be determined. 1.2 Several sampling practices are described, depending on their applicability to the conditions of storage and transport of the sampled powders: 1.2.1 Practice 1A (Described in Section 6 ) Applicable to sampling moving powders, as when being transferred from one container to another or to a process stream; or when falling from a conveyor; or in a moving process stream. This is the preferred practice for obtaining the several increments that are combined to form the gross sample. 1.2.2 Practice 1B (Described in Section 7 ) Applicable to sampling powders that have already been packaged for transport, as in a bag or drum. A hollow tubular slot sampler is the recommended way to sample these packaged powders to obtain the increments ( 7.1.1 ). Alternatively, when other methods are not possible or available, a procedure specified here ( 7.1.2 ) may be used to randomly scoop samples from the powder, using a scoop of specified material and configuration. 1.2.3 Practice 2 (Described in Section 8 ) Applicable to obtaining test portions from the composite sample. For larger quantities of powder, a chute splitter is generally used, while a spinning riffler is used for smaller quantities. 1.3 These practices apply to particulate materials or mixtures of particulates with particle sizes generally less than one millimetre and include mixtures containing lubricant, with or without other non-metallic additives, that are ready for compacting. 1.4 These practices do not cover the sampling of flake powders or pastes. For procedures on the sampling and testing of flake metal powders and pastes, refer to Test Methods D480 . 1.5 Units The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM B487-20

Standard Test Method for Measurement of Metal and Oxide Coating Thickness by Microscopical Examination of Cross Section

1.1 This test method covers measurement of the local thickness of metal and oxide coatings by the microscopical examination of cross sections using an optical microscope. 1.2 Under good conditions, when using an optical microscope, the method is capable of giving an absolute measuring accuracy of 0.8 m. Accuracy will determine the suitability of the method for measuring the thickness of thin coatings. Accuracy is dependent upon the setup of the microscope and preparation of the sample; 0.8 m should not be taken as an absolute and instead as guideline. 1.2.1 Optical microscopes may use digital image capture devices and software to evaluate those images. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (This is especially applicable to the chemicals cited in Table X2.1 .) 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM C1244/C1244M-20

Standard Test Method for Concrete Sewer Manholes by the Negative Air Pressure (Vacuum) Test Prior to Backfill

1.1 This test method covers procedures for testing precast concrete manhole sections when using the vacuum test method to demonstrate the integrity of the installed materials and the construction procedures. This test method is used for testing concrete manhole sections utilizing mortar, mastic, or gasketed joints. 1.2 This test method is intended to be used as a preliminary test to enable the installer to demonstrate the condition of the concrete manholes prior to backfill. Users are hereby cautioned that misuse or misapplication of the test criteria contained herein can cause permanent damage to the system being tested. Note 1: Vacuum test criteria presented in this test method are similar to those in general use. The test and criteria have been widely and successfully used in testing manholes. Note 2: The user of this test method is advised that no correlation has been found between vacuum (air) and hydrostatic tests. 1.3 The values stated in inch pound or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. The SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM C1802-20

Standard Specification for Design, Testing, Manufacture, Selection, and Installation of Horizontal Fabricated Metal Access Hatches for Utility, Water, and Wastewater Structures

1.1 This specification covers the design, testing, manufacture, selection, and installation of substantially horizontal fabricated metal access hatches for utility, water, and wastewater structures including utility vaults, drainage structures, valve vaults, meter vaults, wet wells, pump enclosures, utility trenches, piping trenches, and drainage trenches. 1.2 This specification is applicable to various configurations of access hatches constructed of fabricated metal of various materials and grades for various loading conditions, traffic speeds, or both. 1.3 Engineering design and testing criteria are provided for access hatches to be located in various areas subjected to various loading conditions, traffic speed, frequency, or combinations thereof. 1.4 Proof loading criteria is provided to allow the access hatches to be designed by engineering calculation and/or by ultimate strength load testing. 1.5 Production loading criteria is provided to allow the access hatches to be tested to verify the load capacity of the manufactured hatches. 1.6 Hatch loading selection guidelines are included to allow selection of the proper hatch design loading for the conditions of the actual area of placement. 1.7 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered the standard. 1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.9 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM C862-16(2020)

Standard Practice for Preparing Refractory Concrete Specimens by Casting

1.1 This practice covers the mixing, casting, and curing of monolithic refractory concrete specimens under laboratory conditions for use in further testing. It does not apply to monolithic castable refractories intended primarily for gunning applications. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 Various specimen sizes are required for specific test methods. Refer to these test methods to determine the size and number of specimens, which will be required from the sample. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM C903-15(2020)

Standard Practice for Preparing Refractory Specimens by Cold Gunning

1.1 This practice covers a procedure for preparing refractory specimens usually containing calcium aluminate cement with or without metal fibers by cold nozzle-mix gunning. Specimens prepared in accordance with this practice are intended for use in standard ASTM test methods required for evaluating gunned materials. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM C973-87(2020)

Standard Practice for Preparing Test Specimens from Basic Refractory Gunning Products by Pressing

1.1 This practice covers a procedure for preparing test specimens from basic refractory gunning products by pressing prepared material in a mold. After pressing, test specimens prepared from dolomitic mixes are subjected to a prescribed heat treatment. Specimens prepared in accordance with this procedure are intended for use in ASTM test methods. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM C974-87(2020)

Standard Practice for Preparing Test Specimens from Basic Refractory Castable Products by Casting

1.1 This practice covers a procedure for preparing test specimens from a basic refractory castable by casting prepared material in a mold. Specimens prepared in accordance with this procedure are intended for use in ASTM test methods. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM C975-87(2020)

Standard Practice for Preparing Test Specimens from Basic Refractory Ramming Products by Pressing

1.1 This practice covers a procedure for preparing test specimens from basic refractory ramming products by pressing prepared material in a mold. Specimens prepared in accordance with this procedure are intended for use in ASTM test methods. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D1037-12(2020)

Standard Test Methods for Evaluating Properties of Wood-Base Fiber and Particle Panel Materials

1.1 Part A General Test Methods for Evaluating the Basic Properties of Wood-Base Fiber and Particle Panel Materials These test methods cover the determination of the properties of wood-base fiber and particle panel materials that are produced as mat-formed panels such as particleboard, medium-density fiberboard, hardboard, and oriented strand board. 1.2 Part B Acceptance and Specification Test Methods for Hardboard The methods for Part B provide test procedures for measuring the following properties of hardboard: 1.3 There are accepted basic test procedures for various fundamental properties of materials that may be used without modification for evaluating certain properties of wood-based fiber and particle panel materials. These test methods are included elsewhere in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards . The pertinent ones are listed in Table 1 . A few of the test methods referenced are for construction where the wood-base materials often are used. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI equivalents are approximate in many cases. 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 lbf = 4.45 N. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D1533-20

Standard Test Method for Water in Insulating Liquids by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

1.1 This test method covers the measurement of water present in insulating liquids by coulometric Karl Fischer titration. This test method is used commonly for test specimens below 100 % relative saturation of water in oil. The coulometric test method is known for its high degree of sensitivity (typically 10 g H 2 O). This test method requires the use of equipment specifically designed for coulometric titration. 1.2 This test method recommends the use of commercially available coulometric Karl Fischer titrators and reagents. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements see 8.1 and A2.1 . 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D1754/D1754M-20

Standard Test Method for Effects of Heat and Air on Asphaltic Materials (Thin-Film Oven Test)

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the effects of heat and air on a film of semisolid asphaltic materials. The effects of this treatment are determined from measurements of selected asphalt properties before and after the test. 1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. 1.3 Warning Mercury has been designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and many state agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney, and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA s website http://www.epa.gov/mercury/index.htm for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury-containing products into your state may be prohibited by state law. 1.4 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes which provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D1943-20

Standard Test Method for Alpha Particle Radioactivity of Water 

1.1 This test method covers the measurement of alpha particle activity of water. It is applicable to nuclides that emit alpha particles with energies above 3.9 MeV and at activity levels above 0.02 Bq/mL (540 pCi/L) of radioactive homogeneous water. This test method is not applicable to samples containing alpha-emitting radionuclides that are volatile under conditions of the analysis. 1.2 This test method can be used for either absolute or relative determinations. In tracer work, the results may be expressed by comparison with a standard that is defined to be 100 %. For radioassay, data may be expressed in terms of alpha disintegration rates after calibration with a suitable standard. General information on radioactivity and measurement of radiation has been published in Refs ( 1- 3 ) 2 and summarized in Practices D3648 . 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D2225-20

Standard Test Methods for Silicone Liquids Used for Electrical Insulation

1.1 These test methods cover the testing of silicone liquids for use in transformers, capacitors, and electronic assemblies as an insulating or cooling medium, or both. These methods are generally suitable for specification acceptance (Specification D4652 ), factory control, referee testing, and research. 1.2 Although some of the test methods listed here apply primarily to petroleum-based fluids, they are, with minor revisions, equally applicable to silicone liquids. 1.3 Silicone liquids are used for electrical insulating purposes because of their stable properties at high and low temperatures and their relative environmental inertness. 1.4 A list of the properties and standards are as follows: 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D243/D243M-20

Standard Test Method for Residue of Specified Penetration

1.1 This test method is used to thermally reduce cutback asphalt, a road oil or a semisolid asphalt, having a penetration greater than 100, to a residue of specified penetration. It is primarily used with slow-curing cutback asphalt as specified in Specification D2026/D2026M . 1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system are not necessarily exact equivalents; therefore, to ensure conformance with the standard, each system shall be used independently of the other, and values from the two systems shall not be combined. 1.3 Warning Mercury has been designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and many state agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney, and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA s website http://www.epa.gov/mercury/ for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury, mercury-containing products, or both, into your state may be prohibited by state law. 1.4 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes which provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D2477-07(2020)

Standard Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Insulating Gases at Commercial Power Frequencies

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the dielectric breakdown voltage and dielectric strength of insulating gases used in transformers, circuit breakers, cables, and similar apparatus as an insulating medium. The test method is applicable only to gases with boiling points below room temperature at atmospheric pressure. 1.2 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.3 Mercury has been designated by EPA and many state agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA's website http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury containing products into your state may be prohibited by state law. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D2779-92(2020)

Standard Test Method for Estimation of Solubility of Gases in Petroleum Liquids

1.1 This test method covers the estimation of the equilibrium solubility of several common gases encountered in the aerospace industry in hydrocarbon liquids. These include petroleum fractions with densities in the range from 0.63 to 0.90 at 288 K (59 F). The solubilities can be estimated over the temperature range 228 K ( 50 F) to 423 K (302 F). 1.2 This test method is based on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Henry's law, and the perfect gas law, with empirically assigned constants for the variation with density and for each gas. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D2983-20

Standard Test Method for Low-Temperature Viscosity of Automatic Transmission Fluids, Hydraulic Fluids, and Lubricants using a Rotational Viscometer

1.1 This test method covers the use of rotational viscometers with an appropriate torque range and specific spindle for the determination of the low-shear-rate viscosity of automatic transmission fluids, gear oils, hydraulic fluids, and some lubricants. This test method covers the viscosity range of 300 mPa s to 900 000 mPa s 1.2 This test method was previously titled Low-Temperature Viscosity of Lubricants Measured by Brookfield Viscometer. In the lubricant industry, D2983 test results have often been referred to as Brookfield 2 Viscosity which implies a viscosity determined by this method. 1.3 This test method contains four procedures: Procedure A is used when only an air bath is used to cool samples in preparation for viscosity measurement. Procedure B is used when a mechanically refrigerated programmable liquid bath is used to cool samples in preparation for viscosity measurement. Procedure C is used when a mechanically refrigerated constant temperature liquid bath is used to cool samples by means of a simulated air cell (SimAir) 3 Cell in preparation for viscosity measurement. Procedure D automates the determination of low temperature, low-shear-rate viscosity by utilizing a thermoelectrically heated and cooled temperature-controlled sample chamber along with a programmable rotational viscometer. 1.4 There are multiple precision studies for this test method. 1.4.1 The viscosity data used for the precision studies for Procedures A, B, and C covered a range from 300 mPa s to 170 000 mPa s at test temperatures of 12 C, 26 C, and 40 C. Appendix X5 includes precision data for 55 C test temperature and includes samples with viscosities greater 500 000 mPa s. 1.4.2 The viscosity data used for Procedure D precision study was from 6400 mPa s to 256 000 mPa s at test temperatures of 26 C and 40 C. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5.1 The test method uses the SI unit, milliPascal-second (mPa s), as the unit of viscosity. (1 cP = 1 mPa s). 1.6 WARNING Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous substance that can cause serious medical issues. Mercury, or its vapor, has been demonstrated to be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Use Caution when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable product Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for additional information. The potential exists that selling mercury or mercury-containing products, or both, is prohibited by local or national law. Users must determine legality of sales in their location. 1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D3336-20b

Standard Test Method for Life of Lubricating Greases in Ball Bearings at Elevated Temperatures

1.1 This test method covers the evaluation of the performance of lubricating greases in ball bearings operating under light loads at high speeds and elevated temperatures. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. 1.2.1 Exception The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see 8.1 . 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D3827-92(2020)

Standard Test Method for Estimation of Solubility of Gases in Petroleum and Other Organic Liquids

1.1 This test method covers a procedure for estimating the equilibrium solubility of several common gases in petroleum and synthetic lubricants, fuels, and solvents, at temperatures between 0 and 488 K. 1.2 This test method is limited to systems in which polarity and hydrogen bonding are not strong enough to cause serious deviations from regularity. Specifically excluded are such gases as HCl, NH 3 , and SO 2 , and hydroxy liquids such as alcohols, glycols, and water. Estimating the solubility of CO 2 in nonhydrocarbons is also specifically excluded. 1.3 Highly aromatic oils such as diphenoxy phenylene ethers violate the stated accuracy above 363 K, at which point the estimate for nitrogen solubility is 43 % higher than the observation. 1.4 Lubricants are given preference in this test method to the extent that certain empirical factors were adjusted to the lubricant data. Estimates for distillate fuels are made from the lubricant estimates by a further set of empirical factors, and are less accurate. Estimates for halogenated solvents are made as if they were hydrocarbons, and are the least accurate of the three. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D3829-20a

Standard Test Method for Predicting the Borderline Pumping Temperature of Engine Oil

1.1 This test method covers the prediction of the borderline pumping temperature (BPT) of engine oils through the use of a 16 h cooling cycle over the temperature range from 0 C to 40 C. The precision is stated for temperatures from 34 C to 15 C. 1.2 Applicability to petroleum products other than engine oils has not been determined. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3.1 Exception This test method uses the SI based unit of milliPascal second (mPa s) for viscosity, which is equivalent to centipoise (cP). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D4176-20

Standard Test Method for Free Water and Particulate Contamination in Distillate Fuels (Visual Inspection Procedures)

1.1 This test method covers two procedures for estimating the presence of suspended free water and solid particulate contamination in distillate fuels having distillation end points below 400 C and an ASTM color of 5 or less. 1.1.1 Both procedures can be used as field tests at storage temperatures, or as laboratory tests at controlled temperatures. 1.1.2 Procedure 1 provides a rapid pass/fail method for contamination. Procedure 2 provides a gross numerical rating of haze appearance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D4198-20

Standard Test Methods for Evaluating Absorbent Pads Used with Membrane Filters for Bacteriological Analysis and Growth 

1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the nutrient-holding capacity and the toxic or nutritive effect on bacterial growth of organisms retained on a membrane filter, when the absorbent pad being tested is used as a nutrient reservoir and medium supply source for the retained bacteria. 1.2 The tests described are conducted on 47 mm diameter disks, although other size disks may be employed for bacterial culture techniques. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D4223/D4223M-20

Standard Practices for Preparation of Test Specimens of Asphalt-Stabilized Soils

1.1 This standard covers the selection and proportioning of soils and emulsified or cutback asphalts and the fabrication of 100-mm [4-in.] diameter by 65-mm [2.5-in.] high test specimens. 1.2 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026 . 1.2.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated in the standard are regarded as industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the users objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design. 1.3 Units The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units [presented in brackets] are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. 1.3.1 The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight) while the unit for mass is slugs. The rationalized slug unit is not given, unless dynamic (F=ma) calculations are involved. 1.3.2 It is common practice in the engineering/construction profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. As stated, this standard includes the gravitational system of inch-pound units and does not use/present the slug unit for mass. However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) or recording in lbm/ft 3 shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard. 1.4 This standard offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this standard may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word Standard in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D4380-20

Standard Test Method for Determining Density of Construction Slurries

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the density of slurries used in slurry construction techniques, such as those used to drill borings, maintain trench stability, perform ground improvement, and form hydraulic barriers. This test method is modified from API Recommended Practice 13B. 1.2 Units The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are provided for information only and are not considered standard. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard. 1.2.1 Note that unitless specific gravity is equivalent to SI density in g/cm 3 . 1.2.2 It is common practice in the engineering/construction profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and of force (lbf). This practice implicitly combines two separate systems of units; the absolute and the gravitational systems. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. As stated, this standard includes the gravitational system of inch-pound units and does not use/present the slug unit of mass. However, the use of balances and scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) or recording density in lbm/ft 3 shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard. 1.3 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026 , unless superseded by this test method. 1.3.1 For purposes of comparing a measured or calculated value(s) with specified limits, the measured or calculated value(s) shall be rounded to the nearest decimal of significant digits in the specified limit. 1.3.2 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated in the standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D4565-20

Standard Test Methods for Physical and Environmental Performance Properties of Insulations and Jackets for Telecommunications Wire and Cable

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the physical testing of thermoplastic insulations and jackets used on telecommunications wire and cable and the testing of physical characteristics and environmental performance properties of completed products. To determine the procedure to be used on the particular insulation or jacket or on the completed wire or cable, make reference to the specification for that product. 1.2 These test methods appear in the following sections of this standard: 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard, except where only SI units are given. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statement see 19.1 . 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D4566-20

Standard Test Methods for Electrical Performance Properties of Insulations and Jackets for Telecommunications Wire and Cable

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for electrical testing of thermoplastic insulations and jackets used on telecommunications wire and cable and for the testing of electrical characteristics of completed products. To determine the procedure to be used on the particular insulation or jacket compound, or on the end product, reference should be made to the specification for the product. 1.2 These test methods appear in the following sections of this standard: 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements are given in Sections 7 and 38 . 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D4602-93(2020)

Standard Guide for Nondestructive Testing of Pavements Using Cyclic-Loading Dynamic Deflection Equipment

1.1 This guide covers the preparation, equipment, calibration of equipment, location of test points, magnitudes and configurations of applied loads, cyclic frequencies, and presentation of data for nondestructive testing of pavements using cyclic-loading dynamic deflection equipment. 1.2 Cyclic-loading dynamic deflection equipment includes a group of devices that induce a steady-state sinusoidal vibration in the pavement through cyclic generation of a dynamic load. All such devices apply a static load on the pavement surface, resulting in a static deflection, and then induce some sinusoidal load and consequent deflection around the static load and deflection through an applied steady-state dynamic load. 1.3 As there are great differences between various cyclic-loading dynamic deflection devices, this guide is intended to give uniformly applicable guidance, rather than specific instructions, for their use. For instance, it will specify that calibration of the devices and their instrumentation be carried out at the frequencies and in accordance with procedures recommended by their manufacturers, rather than providing specific instructions. Also, data is specified for collection that should prove adequate for usual applications of such deflection data, but no procedures are included for back-calculating elastic moduli of pavement layers or other such applications. 1.4 This guide does not apply to static deflection equipment such as the Benkelman Beam, automated beam deflection equipment such as the California Traveling Deflectometer, or impulse deflection equipment such as the Falling Weight Deflectometer. 1.5 It is common practice in the engineering profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units, that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. This guide has been written using the gravitational system of units when dealing with the inch-pound system. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight). However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm), or the recording of density in lbm/ft 3 should not be regarded as nonconformance with this guide. 1.6 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word Standard in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process. 1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D4652-20

Standard Specification for Silicone Liquid Used for Electrical Insulation

1.1 This specification covers silicone liquid for use in transformers, capacitors, and electronic assemblies as an insulating or cooling medium, or both. 1.2 Silicone liquid covered by this specification is polydimethylsiloxane having a nominal viscosity of 50 mm 2 /s at 25 C and a fire point of 340 C or greater. This specification applies only to new silicone liquid. Information on in-service maintenance testing is available in appropriate guides. 2 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D4684-20a

Standard Test Method for Determination of Yield Stress and Apparent Viscosity of Engine Oils at Low Temperature

1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the yield stress and viscosity of engine oils after cooling at controlled rates over a period exceeding 45 h to a final test temperature between 10 C and 40 C. The precision is stated for test temperatures from 40 C to 15 C. The viscosity measurements are made at a shear stress of 525 Pa over a shear rate of 0.4 s 1 to 15 s 1 . The viscosity as measured at this shear stress was found to produce the best correlation between the temperature at which the viscosity reached a critical value and borderline pumping failure temperature in engines. 1.2 This test method contain two procedures: Procedure A incorporates several equipment and procedural modifications from Test Method D4684 02 that have shown to improve the precision of the test, while Procedure B is unchanged from Test Method D4684 02. Additionally, Procedure A applies to those instruments that utilize thermoelectric cooling technology or direct refrigeration technology of recent manufacture for instrument temperature control. Procedure B can use the same instruments used in Procedure A or those cooled by circulating methanol. 1.3 Procedure A of this test method has precision stated for a yield range from less than 35 Pa to 210 Pa and apparent viscosity range from 4300 mPa s to 270 000 mPa s. The test procedure can determine higher yield stress and viscosity levels. 1.4 This test method is applicable for unused oils, sometimes referred to as fresh oils, designed for both light duty and heavy duty engine applications. It also has been shown to be suitable for used diesel and gasoline engine oils. The applicability to petroleum products other than engine oils has not been determined. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5.1 Exception This test method uses the SI based unit of milliPascal second (mPa s) for viscosity which is equivalent to, centiPoise (cP). 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D4694-09(2020)

Standard Test Method for Deflections with a Falling-Weight-Type Impulse Load Device

1.1 This test method covers the measurement of deflections of paved and unpaved surfaces with a falling-weight-type impulse load device. These devices are commonly referred to as falling-weight deflectometers or FWDs. 1.2 This test method describes the measurement of vertical deflection response of the surface to an impulse load applied to the pavement surface. Vertical deflections are measured on the load axis and at points spaced radially outward from the load axis. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. A specific hazard statement is given in Section 6 . 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D4695-03(2020)

Standard Guide for General Pavement Deflection Measurements

1.1 This guide provides procedural information for measuring pavement surface deflections, directly under, or at locations radially outward (offset) from a known static, steady-state, or impulse load. Deflections are measured with sensors that monitor the vertical movement of a pavement surface due to the load. This guide describes procedures for the deflection measurement using various deflection testing devices and provides the general information that should be obtained regardless of the type of testing device used. 1.2 This guide is applicable for deflection measurements performed on flexible asphalt concrete (AC), rigid portland cement concrete (PCC), or composite (AC/PCC) pavements. Rigid pavements may be plain, jointed, jointed reinforced, or continuously reinforced concrete. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. Inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information purposes only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D4748-10(2020)

Standard Test Method for Determining the Thickness of Bound Pavement Layers Using Short-Pulse Radar

1.1 This test method covers the nondestructive determination of the thickness of bound pavement layers using ground penetrating radar (GPR). 1.2 This test method may not be suitable for application to pavements which exhibit increased conductivity due to the increased attenuation of the electromagnetic signal. Examples of scenarios which may cause this are: extremely moist or wet (saturated) pavements if free electrolytes are present and slag aggregate with high iron content. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements are given in Section 11 . 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D5090-20

Standard Practice for Standardizing Ultrafiltration Permeate Flow Performance Data

1.1 This practice covers the standardization of permeate flow for ultrafiltration (UF) systems. 1.2 This practice is applicable to natural waters including brackish waters, seawaters, and ultrapure waters including those used in power generation and microelectronics and pharmaceuticals production. It is not necessarily applicable to waste waters. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D5282-05(2020)

Standard Test Methods for Compatibility of Construction Material with Silicone Fluid Used for Electrical Insulation

1.1 These test methods cover screening for the compatibility of construction materials with silicone fluid for use in electrical equipment. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D5505-14(2020)

Standard Practice for Classifying Emulsified Recycling Agents

1.1 This practice identifies emulsified petroleum products that may be used as recycling agents in recycled mixes. These materials are classified by viscosity or by low temperature penetration after aging. 1.2 This practice addresses emulsified materials designed specifically for use in recycling. The use of emulsified materials for recycling shall not be limited to this practice. For instance, the emulsified asphalts specified in Specifications D977 and D2397/D2397M may be used. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D5671-20

Standard Practice for Polishing and Etching Coal Samples for Microscopical Analysis by Reflected Light

1.1 This practice covers laboratory procedures for preparing an etched, polished surface of granular and block samples of coal for examination with a microscope using reflected light illumination. 1.2 Units The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D5687/D5687M-20

Standard Guide for Preparation of Flat Composite Panels with Processing Guidelines for Specimen Preparation

1.1 This guide provides guidelines to facilitate the proper preparation of laminates and test specimens from fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite prepregs. The scope is limited to organic matrices and fiber reinforcement in unidirectional (tape) or orthagonal weave patterns. Other forms may require deviations from these general guidelines. Other processing techniques for test coupon preparation, for example, pultrusion, filament winding and resin-transfer molding, are not addressed. 1.2 Specimen preparation is modeled as an 8-step process that is presented in Fig. 1 and Section 8 . Laminate consolidation techniques are assumed to be by press or autoclave. This practice assumes that the materials are properly handled by the test facility to meet the requirements specified by the material supplier(s) or specification, or both. Proper test specimen identification also includes designation of process equipment, process steps, and any irregularities identified during processing. FIG. 1 8 Step Mechanical Test Data Model Note 1: Material identification is mandatory. Continuous traceability of specimens is required throughout the process. Process checks ( Appendix X4 ) may be done at the end of each step to verify that the step was performed to give a laminate or specimen of satisfactory quality. Steps 4 and 5 may be interchanged. For aramid fibers, step 5 routinely precedes step 4. Steps 6, 7 and 8 may be interchanged. 1.3 Units The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system are not necessarily exact equivalents; therefore, to ensure conformance with the standard, each system shall be used independently of the other, and values from the two systems shall not be combined. 1.3.1 Within the text, the inch-pound units are shown in brackets. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D5858-96(2020)

Standard Guide for Calculating In Situ Equivalent Elastic Moduli of Pavement Materials Using Layered Elastic Theory

1.1 This guide covers the concepts for calculating the in situ equivalent layer elastic moduli can be used for pavement evaluation, rehabilitation, and overlay design. The resulting equivalent elastic moduli calculated from the deflection data are method-dependent and represent the stiffnesses of the layers under a specific nondestructive deflection testing (NDT) device at that particular test load and frequency, temperature, and other environmental and site-specific conditions. Adjustments for design load, reference temperature, and other design-related factors are not covered in this guide. The intent of this guide is not to recommend one specific method, but to outline the general approach for estimating the in situ elastic moduli of pavement layers. 1.2 This guide is applicable to flexible pavements and in some cases, rigid pavements (that is, interior slab loading), but is restricted to the use of layered elastic theory 2 as the analysis method. It should be noted that the various available layered elastic computer modeling techniques use different assumptions and algorithms and that results may vary significantly. Other analysis procedures, such as finite element modeling, may be used, but modifications to the procedure are required. Note 1: If other analysis methods are desired, the report listed in Footnote 3 can provide some guidance. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 3 1.5 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word Standard in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D6001/D6001M-20

Standard Guide for Direct-Push Groundwater Sampling for Environmental Site Characterization

1.1 This guide covers a review of methods for sampling groundwater at discrete points or in increments by insertion of groundwater sampling devices using Direct Push Methods ( D6286/D6286M , see 3.3.2). By directly pushing the sampler, the soil is displaced and helps to form an annular seal above the sampling zone. Direct-push water sampling can be one time, or multiple sampling events. Knowledge of site specific geology and hydrogeologic conditions is necessary to successfully obtain groundwater samples with these devices. 1.2 Direct-push methods of water sampling are used for groundwater quality and geohydrologic studies. Water quality and permeability may vary at different depths below the surface depending on geohydrologic conditions. Incremental sampling or sampling at discrete depths is used to determine the distribution of contaminants and to more completely characterize geohydrologic environments. These explorations are frequently advised in characterization of hazardous and toxic waste sites and for geohydrologic studies. 1.3 This guide covers several types of groundwater samplers; sealed screen samplers, profiling samplers, dual tube sampling systems, and simple exposed screen samplers. In general, sealed screen samplers driven to discrete depth provide the highest quality water samples. Profiling samplers using an exposed screen(s) which are purged between sampling events allow for more rapid sample collection at multiple depths. Simple exposed screen samplers driven to a test zone with no purging prior to sampling may result in more questionable water quality if exposed to upper contaminated zones, and in that case, would be considered screening devices. 1.4 Methods for obtaining groundwater samples for water quality analysis and detection of contaminants are presented. These methods include use of related standards such as; selection of purging and sampling devices (Guide D6452 and D6634/D6634M ), sampling methods (Guide D4448 and D6771 ) and sampling preparation and handling (Guides D5903 , D6089 , D6517 , D6564/D6564M , and D6911 ). 1.5 When appropriately installed and developed many of these devices may be used to perform pneumatic slug testing (Practice D7242/D7242M ) to quantitatively evaluate formation hydraulic conductivity over discrete intervals of unconsolidated formations. These slug tests provide reliable determinations of hydraulic conductivity and can be performed after water quality sampling is completed. 1.6 Direct-push water sampling is limited to unconsolidated formations that can be penetrated with available equipment. In strong soils damage may result during insertion of the sampler from rod bending or assembly buckling. Penetration may be limited, or damage to samplers or rods can occur in certain ground conditions, some of which are discussed in 5.7 . Drilling equipment such as sonic drilling (Practice D6914/D6914M ) or rotary drilling (Guide D6286/D6286M ) can be used to advance holes past formations difficult to penetrate using typical Direct Push equipment. Some soil formations do not yield water in a timely fashion for direct-push sampling. In the case of unyielding formations, direct-push soil sampling can be performed (Guide D6282/D6282M ). 1.7 Direct push water sampling with one-time sealed screen samplers can also be performed using cone penetrometer equipment (Guide D6067/D6067M ). 1.8 This guide does not address installation of permanent water sampling systems such as those presented in Practice D5092/D5092M . Direct-push monitoring wells for long term monitoring are addressed in Guide D6724/D6724M and Practice D6725/D6725M . 1.9 Units The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units [presented in brackets] are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard. 1.10 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026 , unless superseded by this standard. 1.11 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.12 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word Standard in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process. 1.13 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D6122-20a

Standard Practice for Validation of the Performance of Multivariate Online, At-Line, Field and Laboratory Infrared Spectrophotometer, and Raman Spectrometer Based Analyzer Systems

1.1 This practice covers requirements for the validation of measurements made by laboratory, field, or process (online or at-line) infrared (near- or mid-infrared analyzers, or both), and Raman analyzers, used in the calculation of physical, chemical, or quality parameters (that is, properties) of liquid petroleum products and fuels. The properties are calculated from spectroscopic data using multivariate modeling methods. The requirements include verification of adequate instrument performance, verification of the applicability of the calibration model to the spectrum of the sample under test, and verification that the uncertainties associated with the degree of agreement between the results calculated from the infrared or Raman measurements and the results produced by the PTM used for the development of the calibration model meets user-specified requirements. Initially, a limited number of validation samples representative of current production are used to do a local validation. When there is an adequate number of validation samples with sufficient variation in both property level and sample composition to span the model calibration space, the statistical methodology of Practice D6708 can be used to provide general validation of this equivalence over the complete operating range of the analyzer. For cases where adequate property and composition variation is not achieved, local validation shall continue to be used. 1.1.1 For some applications, the analyzer and PTM are applied to the same material. The application of the multivariate model to the analyzer output (spectrum) directly produces a PPTMR for the same material for which the spectrum was measured. The PPTMRs are compared to the PTMRs measured on the same materials to determine the degree of agreement. 1.1.2 For other applications, the material measured by the analyzer system is subjected to a consistent additive treatment prior to being analyzed by the PTM. The application of the multivariate model to the analyzer output (spectrum) produces a PPTMR for the treated material. The PPTMRs based on the analyzer outputs are compared to the PTMRs measured on the treated materials to determine the degree of agreement. 1.1.3 In some cases, a two-step procedure is employed. In the first step, the analyzer and PTM are applied to the measurement of a blendstock material. In a second step, the PPTMRs produced in Step 1 are used as inputs to a second model that predicts the results obtained when the PTM is applied to the analysis of the finished blended product produced by additivation to the blendstock. If the analyzer used in the first step is a multivariate spectroscopic based analyzer, then this practice is used to access the degree of agreement between PPTMRs and PTMRs. Otherwise, Practice D3764 is used to compare the PPTMRs to the PTMRs for this blendstock to determine the degree of agreement. Since this second step does not use spectroscopic data, the validation of the second step is done using Practice D3764 . If the first step uses a multivariate spectrophotometric analyzer, then only samples for which the spectra are not outliers relative to the multivariate model are used in the second step. Note that the second model might accommodate variable levels of additive material addition to the blend stock. 1.2 Multiple physical, chemical, or quality properties of the sample under test are typically predicted from a single spectral measurement. In applying this practice, each property prediction is validated separately. The separate validation procedures for each property may share common features, and be affected by common effects, but the performance of each property prediction is evaluated independently. The user will typically have multiple validation procedures running simultaneously in parallel. 1.3 Results used in analyzer validation are for samples that were not used in the development of the multivariate model, and for spectra which are not outliers or nearest neighbor inliers relative to the multivariate model. 1.4 When the number, composition range or property range of available validation samples do not span the model calibration range, a local validation is done using available samples representative of current production. When the number, composition range and property range of available validation samples becomes comparable to those of the model calibration set, a general validation can be done. 1.4.1 Local Validation: 1.4.1.1 The calibration samples used in developing the multivariate model must show adequate compositional and property variation to enable the development of a meaningful correlation, and must span the compositional range of samples to be analyzed using the model to ensure that such analyses are done via interpolation rather than extrapolation. The Standard Error of Calibration (SEC) is a measure of how well the PTMRs and PPTMRs agree for this set of calibration samples. SEC includes contributions from spectrum measurement error, PTM measurement error, and model error. Sample (type) specific biases are a part of the model error. Typically, spectroscopic analyzers are very precise, so that spectral measurement error is small relative to the other types of error. 1.4.1.2 During initial analyzer validation, the compositional range of available samples may be small relative to the range of the calibration set. Because of the high precision of the spectroscopic measurement, the average difference between the PTMRs and PPTMRs may reflect a sample (type) specific bias which is statistically observable, but which are less than the 95 % uncertainty of PPTMR, U(PPTMR) . Therefore, the bias and precision of the PTMR/PPTMR differences are not used as the basis for local validation. 1.4.1.3 Based on SEC, and the leverage statistic, a 95 % uncertainty for each PPTMR, U(PPTMR) is calculated. During validation, for each non-outlier sample, a determination is made as to whether the absolute difference between PPTMR and PTMR, , is less than or equal to U(PPTMR) . Counts are maintained as to the total number of non-outlier validation samples, and the number of samples for which is less than or equal to U(PPTMR) . Given the total number of non-outlier validation samples, an inverse binomial distribution is used to calculate the minimum number of results for which must be less than U(PPTMR) . If the number of results for which is less than U(PPTMR) is greater than or equal to this minimum, then the results are consistent with the expectations of the multivariate model, and the analyzer passes local validation. The calculations involved are described in detail in Section 11 and Annex A4 . 1.4.1.4 The user must establish that results that are consistent with the expectations based on the multivariate model will be adequate for the intended application. A 95 % probability is recommended for the inverse binomial distribution calculation. The user may adjust this based on the criticality of the application. See Annex A4 for details. 1.4.2 General Validation: 1.4.2.1 When the validation samples are of sufficient number, and their compositional and property ranges are comparable to that of the model calibration set, then a General Validation can be done. 1.4.2.2 General Validation is conducted by doing a D6708 based assessment between results from the analyzer system (or subsystem) produced by application of the multivariate model, (such results are herein referred to as PPTMRs), versus the PTMRs for the same sample set. The system (or subsystem) is considered to be validated if the D6708 meets the following condition: (1) No bias correction can statistically improve the agreement between the PPTMRs versus the PTMRs, and (2) R xy computed as per D6708 meets user-specified requirements. 1.4.2.3 For analyzers used in product release or product quality certification applications, the precision and bias requirement for the degree of agreement are typically based on the site or published precision of the PTM. Note 1: In most applications of this type, the PTM is the specification-cited test method. 1.4.2.4 This practice does not describe procedures for establishing precision and bias requirements for analyzer system applications. Such requirements must be based on the criticality of the results to the intended business application and on contractual and regulatory requirements. The user must establish precision and bias requirements prior to initiating the validation procedures described herein. 1.5 This practice does not cover procedures for establishing the calibration model (correlation) used by the analyzer. Calibration procedures are covered in Practices E1655 and references therein. 1.6 This practice is intended as a review for experienced persons. For novices, this practice will serve as an overview of techniques used to verify instrument performance, to verify model applicability to the spectrum of the sample under test, and to verify that the degree of agreement between PPTMRs and PTMRs meet user requirements. 1.7 This practice specifies appropriate statistical tools, outlier detection methods, for determining whether the spectrum of the sample under test is a member of the population of spectra used for the analyzer calibration. The statistical tools are used to determine if the infrared measurement results in a valid property or parameter estimate. 1.8 The outlier detection methods do not define criteria to determine whether the sample or the instrument is the cause of an outlier measurement. Thus, the operator who is measuring samples on a routine basis will find criteria to determine that a spectral measurement lies outside the calibration, but will not have specific information on the cause of the outlier. This practice does suggest methods by which instrument performance tests can be used to indicate if the outlier methods are responding to changes in the instrument response. 1.9 This practice is not intended as a quantitative performance standard for the comparison of analyzers of different design. 1.10 Although this practice deals primarily with validation of infrared and Raman analyzers, the procedures and statistical tests described herein are also applicable to other types of analyzers which employ multivariate models. 1.11 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.12 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D6273-20

Standard Test Method for Natural Gas Odor Intensity

1.1 This test method covers the procedures for determining the threshold detection level, readily detectable level, and odor intensity of natural gas using instruments that dilute and mix the sampled natural gas with air. The mixed gas stream is then sniffed by the operator for the purpose of determining any of these parameters for odorant in a natural gas stream. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.3 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D632-12(2020)

Standard Specification for Sodium Chloride

1.1 This specification covers sodium chloride intended for use as a deicer and for road construction or maintenance purposes. 1.2 The values stated as SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.3 For purposes of determining conformance to this specification, values for chemical analysis shall be rounded to the nearest 0.1 %, and values for grading shall be rounded to the nearest 1 %, in accordance with the rounding method in Practice E29 . 1.4 The text of this specification references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes shall not be considered as requirements of the specification. 1.5 The following precautionary caveat pertains only to the test method in Annex A1 of this specification: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D6608-20

Standard Practice for the Identification of Trinidad Lake Asphalt in Asphalt Mixes

1.1 This practice shall be used for the qualitative determination of Trinidad Lake Asphalt in Trinidad Lake Modified Asphalt Cements obtained from production blends or recovered binder from asphalt paving mixtures. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This practice is limited to asphalt binders which are produced in accordance with Specification D5710/D5710M . 1.4 Warning Mercury has been designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and many state agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney, and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA s website http://www.epa.gov/mercury/index.htm for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury-containing products into your state may be prohibited by state law. 1.5 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes which provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D6821-20a

Standard Test Method for Low Temperature Viscosity of Drive Line Lubricants in a Constant Shear Stress Viscometer

1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the viscosity of drive line lubricants (gear oils, automatic transmission fluids, and so forth) with a constant shear stress viscometer at temperatures from 40 C to 10 C after a prescribed preheat and controlled cooling to the final test temperature. The precision is stated for test temperatures from 40 C to 26 C. 1.2 The applicability of this particular test method to petroleum products other than drive line lubricants has not been determined. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3.1 This standard uses the SI based unit of milliPascal second (mPa s) for viscosity which is equivalent to centiPoise (cP). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D6962-20

Standard Practice for Operation of a Roller Chair Tester for Pile Yarn Floor Coverings

1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the operation of a weighted roller chair testing device that rotates and moves across a test specimen of pile yarn floor coverings. 1.2 This practice is applicable for testing unused pile yarn floor covering of all types. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.



ASTM D7228-06a(2020)

Standard Test Method for Prediction of Asphalt-Bound Pavement Layer Temperatures

1.1 This test method covers a means of predicting temperatures within the asphalt-bound layer(s) of a flexible pavement section. 1.2 Deflection testing commonly involves the measurement of pavement surface temperatures. This standard is based on temperature relationships developed as part of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Seasonal Monitoring Program. 1.3 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D7903-14(2020)

Standard Practice for Determining the Capacity of Oxygen Removal Ion Exchange Cartridges

1.1 This practice covers the determination of the performance of oxygen removal ion exchange resin cartridges in the regenerated form when used for removing dissolved oxygen from water. The test can be used to determine the initial capacity of unused cartridges or the remaining capacity of used cartridges. In this case, performance is defined as oxygen removal capacity (or throughput) to a defined endpoint. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D8108-20

Standard Test Method for Determination of Particulate Matter Mass from Light Duty Mobile Sources (Gravimetric Method)

1.1 This test method covers a procedure for the gravimetric determination of particulate matter (PM) collected from diluted light duty vehicle exhaust. It is applicable to mass rates from 0.32 to 32 mg/km (0.2 to 20 mg/mile). 1.2 Diluted exhaust is passed through pre-weighed filter media which is re-weighed after sampling to determine particulate mass emission rates. 1.3 The particulate materials that are measured using this test method are generated by a vehicle following the PM standard applicable portions of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resources Board (CARB) driving schedules and test procedures for determining the emissions of light duty vehicles. For other jurisdictions, consult regional regulations for applicability of these test procedures. These test procedures are referenced in Annex A3 of this document. 1.4 The primary intent of this test method is to summarize the PM measurement test procedures as defined by the EPA and CARB (40 CFR Parts 1066, 1065, 86.101, and CARB test procedures for hybrid vehicle testing). Note 1: Some requirements are generalized from core references for simplicity and to provide guidance for users applying the principals in this standard to regions not governed by EPA and CARB regulation. For specific details, reference the regulated procedures. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ANSI Logo

As the voice of the U.S. standards and conformity assessment system, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) empowers its members and constituents to strengthen the U.S. marketplace position in the global economy while helping to assure the safety and health of consumers and the protection of the environment.

CUSTOMER SERVICE
NEW YORK OFFICE
ANSI HEADQUARTERS