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Safety standards for vehicles with electric components address environmental conditions and testing, functional safety, and other considerations relevant to electric vehicles. ISO 16750, Environmental Testing and Conditions for electrical and electronic equipment, describes the potential environmental stresses and specifies tests and requirements recommended for the specific mounting location on/in the road vehicle. ISO 26262, Road Vehicle Functional Safety, is intended to be applied to safety-related systems that include one or more electrical and/or electronic systems and that are installed in series production passenger cars with a maximum gross vehicle mass of up to 3,500 kg. These standards are related to general safety regarding a variety of different vehicles.

ANSI/OPEI Z135-2020

Personal Transport Vehicles - Safety and Performance Specifications (Revision and redesignation of ANSI/ILTVA Z135-2012)

This standard provides safety and performance specifications relating to personal transport vehicles (PTVs), driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines to be operated on designated roadways, or within a closed community where permitted by law or by regulatory authority rules.

ANSI/OPEI Z130.1-2020

Golf Cars - Safety and Performance Specifications

This standard provides safety and performance specifications relating to golf cars, driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines specifically intended for and used on golf courses for transporting golfers and their equipment. (Revision and redesignation)


RESNA American National Standard for Adaptive Sports Equipment - Volume 2: Adaptive Golf Cars

This standard covers the requirements and test methods for the testing of adaptive sports equipment (ASE). Volume 2 was developed to establish safety specifications for the design and operation of adaptive golf cars driven by electric motors with respect to speed, acceleration, stability, braking systems, operational controls, electrical systems, and general configurations.

SAE J 1766-2014 (SAE J1766-2014)

Recommended Practice for Electric, Fuel Cell and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Crash Integrity Testing

Electric, Fuel Cell and Hybrid vehicles may contain many types of high voltage systems. Adequate barriers between occupants and the high voltage systems are necessary to provide protection from potentially harmful electric current and materials within the high voltage system that can cause injury to occupants of the vehicle during and after a crash. This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to Electric, Fuel Cell and Hybrid vehicle designs that are comprised of at least one vehicle propulsion voltage bus with a nominal operating voltage greater than 60 and less than 1,500 VDC, or greater than 30 and less than 1,000 VAC. This Recommended Practice addresses post-crash electrical safety, retention of electrical propulsion components and electrolyte spillage.

SAE J 2344-2010 (SAE J2344-2010)

Guidelines for Electric Vehicle Safety

This SAE Information Report identifies and defines the preferred technical guidelines relating to safety for vehicles that contain High Voltage (HV), such as Electric Vehicles (EV), Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), fuel Cell Vehicles (FCV) and Plug-In fule Cell Vehicles (PFCV) during normal operation and charging, as applicable. Guidelines in this document do not necessarily address maintenance, repair, or assembly safety issues. The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to provide introductory safety guideline information that should be considered when designing electric vehicles for use on public roadways. This document covers electric vehicles having a gross vehicle weight rating of 4536 kg (10 000 lb) or less that are designed for use on public roads.

SAE J 2889-1-2015 (SAE J2889-1-2015)

Measurement of Minimum Noise Emitted by Road Vehicles

This SAE Standard is derived from SAE J2805 and specifies an engineering method for measuring the sound emitted by M and N category road vehicles at standstill and low speed operating conditions.. The specifications reproduce the level of sound which is generated by the principal vehicle sound sources consistent with stationary and low speed vehicle operating conditions relevant for pedestrian safety. The method is designed to meet the requirements of simplicity as far as they are consistent with reproducibility of results under the operating conditions of the vehicle. The test method requires an acoustic environment which is only obtained in an extensive open space or in special designed indoor facilities replicating the conditions of an extensive open space. Such conditions usually exist during: • Measurements of vehicles for regulatory certification. • Measurements at the manufacturing stage. • Measurements at official testing stations. The results obtained by this method give an objective measure of the sound emitted under the specified conditions of test. It is necessary to consider the fact that the subjective appraisal of the annoyance, perceptibility, and/or detectability of different motor vehicles or classes of motor vehicles due to their sound emission are not simply related to the indications of a sound measurement system. As annoyance, perceptibility, and/or detectability are strongly related to personal human perception, physiological human condition, culture, and environmental conditions, there are large variations and therefore these terms are not useful as parameters to describe a specific vehicle condition.

SAE J 2929-2013 (SAE J2929-2013)

Safety Standard for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Battery Systems Utilizing Lithium-based Rechargeable Cells

This SAE Standard defines a minimum set of acceptable safety criteria for a lithium-based rechargeable battery system to be considered for use in a vehicle propulsion application as an energy storage system connected to a high voltage power train. While the objective is a safe battery system when installed into a vehicle application, this Standard is primarily focused, wherever possible, on conditions which can be evaluated utilizing the battery system alone. As this is a minimum set of criteria, it is recognized that battery system and vehicle manufacturers may have additional requirements for cells, modules, packs and systems in order to assure a safe battery system for a given application. A battery system is a completely functional energy storage system consisting of the pack(s) and necessary ancillary subsystems for physical support and enclosure, thermal management, and electronic control.

SAE J 2990-2019

Hybrid and EV First and Second Responder Recommended Practice

xEVs involved in incidents present unique hazards associated with the high voltage system (including the battery system). These hazards can be grouped into three categories: chemical, electrical, and thermal. The potential consequences can vary depending on the size, configuration, and specific battery chemistry. Other incidents may arise from secondary events such as garage fires and floods. These types of incidents are also considered in the recommended practice (RP). This RP aims to describe the potential consequences associated with hazards from xEVs and suggest common procedures to help protect emergency responders, tow and/or recovery, storage, repair, and salvage personnel after an incident has occurred with an electrified vehicle. Industry design standards and tools were studied and where appropriate, suggested for responsible organizations to implement. Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries used for vehicle propulsion power are the assumed battery system of this RP. This chemistry is the prevailing technology associated with high voltage vehicle electrification today and the foreseeable future. The hazards associated with Li-ion battery chemistries are addressed in this RP. Other chemistries and alternative propulsion systems including hydrogen fuel cells are not considered in this version of SAE J2990. Recommendations for hazards associated with hydrogen vehicles can be found in SAE J2990/1.

ISO 6469-1:2019

Electrically propelled road vehicles - Safety specifications - Part 1: Rechargeable energy storage system (RESS)

This document specifies safety requirements for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESS) of electrically propelled road vehicles for the protection of persons. It does not provide the comprehensive safety information for the manufacturing, maintenance and repair personnel. NOTE 1 Requirements for motorcycles and mopeds are specified in ISO 13063 and ISO 18243. NOTE 2 Additional safety requirements can apply for RESS that can be recharged by means different from supplying electric energy (e.g. redox flow battery).

ISO 6469-2:2018

Electrically propelled road vehicles - Safety specifications - Part 2: Vehicle operational safety

ISO 6469-2:2018 specifies requirements for operational safety specific to electrically propelled road vehicles, for the protection of persons inside and outside the vehicle. NOTE 1 Relevant requirements for motorcycles and mopeds are described in ISO 13063. ISO 6469-2:2018 does not provide comprehensive safety information for manufacturing, maintenance and repair personnel. ISO 6469-2:2018 does not consider specific aspects of driving automation features. NOTE 2 For definition of the term driving automation features , see SAE J3016.

ISO 6469-3:2021

Electrically propelled road vehicles - Safety specifications - Part 3: Electrical safety

This document specifies electrical safety requirements for voltage class B electric circuits of electric propulsion systems and conductively connected auxiliary electric systems of electrically propelled road vehicles. It specifies electrical safety requirements for protection of persons against electric shock and thermal incidents. It does not provide comprehensive safety information for manufacturing, maintenance and repair personnel. NOTE 1 Electrical safety requirements for post-crash are described in ISO 6469-4. NOTE 2 Electrical safety requirements for conductive connections of electrically propelled road vehicles to an external electric power supply are described in ISO 17409. NOTE 3 Specific electrical safety requirements for magnetic field wireless power transfer between an external electric power supply and an electrically propelled vehicle are described in ISO 19363. NOTE 4 Electrical safety requirements for motorcycles and mopeds are described in the ISO 13063 series.


As the voice of the U.S. standards and conformity assessment system, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) empowers its members and constituents to strengthen the U.S. marketplace position in the global economy while helping to assure the safety and health of consumers and the protection of the environment.