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Forensic Fiber Analysis Standards

Standards for forensic fiber analysis address a staple component of forensic inquiry, the investigation of fibers, fabrics, textiles, cordage, everything contained within them, and everything constructed out of them. Given the enormous range of variability within the field of potential fibers that have to be identified, as well as their combinations and the array of forensically interesting material that might be attached, the widespread use of standardized procedures brings order and dependability to forensic fiber analysis. Forensic fiber analysis standards address procedures such as microscopic examination, thin-layer chromatography, or infrared spectroscopy. In addition to procedures, these standards also contain definitions and terminology, included in order to improve consistency between laboratories.

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ASTM E2224-19

Standard Guide for Forensic Analysis of Fibers by Infrared Spectroscopy

1.1 Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a valuable method of fiber polymer identification and comparison in forensic examinations. The use of IR microscopes, coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers, has greatly simplified the IR analysis of single fibers, thus making the technique feasible for routine use in the forensic laboratory. This guide provides basic recommendations and information about IR spectrometers and accessories, with an emphasis on sampling techniques specific to fiber examinations. The particular method(s) employed by each examiner or laboratory will depend upon available equipment, examiner training, sample suitability, and sample size. 1.2 This guide is intended for examiners with a basic knowledge of the theory and practice of IR spectroscopy, as well as experience in the handling and forensic examination of fibers. In addition, this guide is to be used in conjunction with a broader analytical scheme. 1.3 If polymer identification is not readily apparent from optical data alone, an additional method of analysis, such as microchemical tests, melting point, IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, or pyrolysis gas chromatography, should be used. An advantage of IR spectroscopy is that the instrumentation is readily available in most forensic laboratories and the technique is minimally destructive. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard cannot replace knowledge, skills, or abilities acquired through education, training, and experience and is to be used in conjunction with professional judgment by individuals with such discipline-specific knowledge, skills, and abilities. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM E2225-19a

Standard Guide for Forensic Examination of Fabrics and Cordage

1.1 This guide is intended to assist individuals and laboratories that conduct examinations of fabrics and cordage for the purposes of analyzing and comparing types of fabric, cordage and damage. A complete characterization of the fabrics, including their construction and other materials used in the assemblage of a textile (for example, sewing thread), is a critical component of a comprehensive forensic fabric or cordage examination. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard cannot replace knowledge, skills, or abilities acquired through education, training, and experience and is to be used in conjunction with professional judgment by individuals with such discipline-specific knowledge, skills, and abilities. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM E2227-13

Standard Guide for Forensic Examination of Non-Reactive Dyes in Textile Fibers by Thin-Layer Chromatography

1.1 Metameric coloration of fibers can be detected using UV/visible spectrophotometry. If spectrophotometry is restricted to the visible spectral range only, differences in dye components may remain undetected. One method of detecting additional components is to use thin-layer chromatography (TLC). TLC is an inexpensive, simple, well-documented technique that, under certain conditions, can be used to complement the use of visible spectroscopy in comparisons of fiber colorants. The principle of the method is that the dye components are separated by their differential migration caused by a mobile phase flowing through a porous, adsorptive medium. 1.2 This standard does not replace knowledge, skill, ability, experience, education, or training and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM E2228-19

Standard Guide for Microscopical Examination of Textile Fibers

1.1 This standard describes guidelines for microscopical examinations employed in forensic fiber characterization, identification, and comparison. A microscopical fiber examination can include a variety of light microscopes, such as stereomicroscope, polarized light, comparison, fluorescence, and interference. In certain instances, the scanning electron microscope can yield additional information. The particular test(s) or techniques employed by each examiner or laboratory will depend upon available equipment, examiner training, and the nature and extent of the fiber evidence. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard cannot replace knowledge, skills, or abilities acquired through education, training, and experience and is to be used in conjunction with professional judgment by individuals with such discipline-specific knowledge, skills, and abilities. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D7612-10(2015)

Standard Practice for Categorizing Wood and Wood-Based Products According to Their Fiber Sources

1.1 This practice sets forth minimum criteria and evaluation requirements for products employing the use of different systems to trace wood fiber to sources operating under different forest management or forest certification systems. 1.2 The purpose of this practice is to provide wood products manufacturers, distributors, and retailers with a system to provide clear, objective information to communicate to consumers regarding product conformance to different wood fiber tracing systems within specific forest management or forest certification programs. It provides a structure that segregates the different types of labels and tracing systems in use among major forest certification standards and other voluntary and regulatory standards governing the production of forest products. 1.3 The category structure of this practice is derived from publicly available sources or based on the provisions of various forest management or forest certification standards. Documentation of compliance with specific category requirements is the responsibility of the user. The objective of this categorization is to provide a concise and easily communicated description based on grouping of significant practices. It is possible that this grouping will result in some consolidation of concepts and practices of individual programs. Details of these practices or categorization of products complying with more than one program are beyond the scope of this practice. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


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