Flue Gas

Flue gas particle testing standards are published by ISO and ASTM. The ASTM standard covers Elemental, Oxidized, Particle-Bound and Total Mercury in Flue Gas Generated from Coal-Fired Stationary Sources (Ontario Hydro Method). ISO standards cover the Test method for determining PM2,5 and PM10 mass in stack gases using cyclone samplers and sample dilution, Measurement at higher concentrations by use of virtual impactors, Measurement at low concentrations by use of impactors, Sample preparation, clean-up and determination and Sampling.

ISO 25597:2013

Stationary source emissions - Test method for determining PM2,5 and PM10 mass in stack gases using cyclone samplers and sample dilution

ISO 25597:2013 specifies procedures for the extraction and measurement of filterable particulate matter from stationary source flue gas samples by: a) the use of cyclone samplers; b) the measurement of condensed particulate matter using dilution sampling technique, which simulates the interaction of stack gas components with the atmosphere as they mix after the stack exit. ISO 25597:2013 provides for the use of two types of sampling train. 1) Basic sampling train, a basic sampling train to measure filterable particles using sampling cyclones that can distinguish between particle sizes in the range of 2,5 m and 10 m. This method is especially suitable for measurements of particle mass concentrations above 50 mg/m 3 as a half-hourly average at standard conditions (293 K, 1 013 hPa, dry gas) and applies to primary particulate matter (PM) emissions equal to or less than an aerodynamic diameter of nominally 10 m (PM 10 ) from stacks or ducts. 2) Dilution sampling train, a dilution sampling train that utilizes a dilution chamber that mixes flue gas with conditioned dilution air to simulate the interaction of the stack gas components with ambient air. This simulation process may lead to the condensation of particulate matter that might not otherwise be produced in the basic sampling train. The dilution sampling train uses in-stack sampling cyclones to measure filterable particles in the same manner as the basic sampling train, but in addition, utilizes additional PM 2,5 and/or PM 10 cyclones in the sampling train to measure particles formed in the dilution chamber. This method is intended for the measurement of mass concentrations of particles smaller than 2,5 m aerodynamic diameter (PM 2,5 ) using weighing techniques. The method can be used to measure mass concentrations of particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 m aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 ) or particles with aerodynamic diameters between 2,5 m and 10 m. In this method, the dilution sampling train can be used in combination with the basic sampling train, using PM 10 and/or PM 2,5 depending upon the test objectives. The dilution sampling system is intended for applications where measurement is required of particles similar in characteristics to materials formed when a flue gas exhaust mixes with ambient air. Particulate matter filter samples collected using dilution sampling can be further analysed to provide chemical composition data that are applicable for developing PM 2,5 or PM 10 emission inventories, visibility impact assessments, health risk assessments, and source?receptor studies related to PM 2,5 and PM 10 emissions. This method is not applicable to the determination of ultrafine particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 0,1 m. This method has been applied to emission sources with low moisture and saturated moisture stack gases; however, it is not applicable to effluents where entrained water droplets are present. It is recognized that there are some combustion processes and situations that can limit the applicability of ISO 25597:2013. Where such conditions exist, caution and competent technical judgment are required, especially when dealing with any of the following: i) high-vacuum, high-pressure or high-temperature gas streams above 260 °C; ii) fluctuations in velocity, temperature or concentration due to uncontrollable variation in the process; iii) gas stratification due to the non-mixing of gas streams. There are also limitations specific to each sampling technique. Stacks with entrained moisture droplets can have droplet sizes larger than the cut sizes for the cyclones. These water droplets normally contain particles and dissolved solids that become PM 10 and PM 2,5 following evaporation of the water. For dilution sampling, a known limitation of this method concerns the presence of particles in the dilution air at very low concentrations, contributing to measurement background. This can be significant for certain very clean sources, e.g. gas-fired power plants. Dilution air system blanks are necessary when sampling sources with anticipated PM 2,5 or PM 10 mass concentrations less than or equal to about 1,0 mg/m 3 .

ISO 13271:2012

Stationary source emissions - Determination of PM10/PM2,5 mass concentration in flue gas - Measurement at higher concentrations by use of virtual impactors

ISO 13271:2012 specifies a standard reference method for the determination of PM 10 and PM 2,5 mass concentrations at stationary emission sources by use of two-stage virtual impactors. The measurement method is especially suitable for in-stack measurements of particle mass concentrations in flue gas. The method can also be used for flue gas which contains highly reactive compounds (e.g. sulfur, chlorine, nitric acid) at high temperature or in the presence of high humidity. The International Standard is applicable to higher dust concentrations. Coarse particles are separated into the nozzles with negligible rebound and entrainment phenomena of collected coarse particulates. For the same reason, the artefacts due to high concentrations in gases or emissions are quite limited. ISO 13271:2012 is not applicable to the determination of the total mass concentration of dust.

ISO 23210:2009

Stationary source emissions - Determination of PM10/PM2,5 mass concentration in flue gas - Measurement at low concentrations by use of impactors

ISO 23210:2009 specifies a standard reference method for the determination of PM10 and PM2,5 mass concentrations at stationary emission sources by use of two-stage impactors. The measurement method is especially suitable for measurements of mass concentrations below 40 mg/m3 as half-hourly averages in standard conditions (273 K, 1 013 hPa, dry gas). It is an acceptable method for the measurement in the flue gas of different installations, such as cement and steel production plants, as well as combustion processes. ISO 23210:2009 is not applicable to the sampling of flue gases that are saturated with water vapour. ISO 23210:2009 is not applicable where the majority of the particles are likely to exceed PM10, for example, in the case of raw gases or plant operating failures. ISO 23210:2009 cannot be used for the determination of the total mass concentration of dust. ISO 23210:2009 describes the design, use and theory of round-nozzle impactors. It does not exclude other types of impactors, provided these systems meet the performance criteria specified in ISO 23210:2009 in a validation of the impactor performed by an independent testing laboratory.

ISO 11338-2:2003

Stationary source emissions - Determination of gas and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Part 2: Sample preparation, clean-up and determination

ISO 11338-2:2003 specifies procedures for sample preparation, clean-up and analysis for the determination of gas and particle phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in stack and waste gases. The analytical methods are capable of detecting sub-microgram concentrations of PAH per cubic metre of sample, depending on the type of PAH and the flue gas volume sampled. The methods described in ISO 11338-2:2003 are based on either high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). NOTE ISO 11338-1 describes three methods and specifies minimum requirements for the sampling of PAH in stack and waste gases.

ISO 11338-1:2003

Stationary source emissions - Determination of gas and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Part 1: Sampling

ISO 11338-1:2003 describes methods for the determination of the mass concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in flue gas emissions from stationary sources such as aluminium smelters, coke works, waste incinerators, power stations, and industrial and domestic combustion appliances. ISO 11338-1:2003 describes three sampling methods, which are here regarded as of equivalent value, and specifies the minimum requirements for effective PAH sampling. The three sampling methods are the dilution method (A), the heated filter/condenser/adsorber method (B) and the cooled probe/adsorber method (C). All three methods are based on representative isokinetic sampling, as the PAHs are commonly associated with particles in flue gas. Information is provided to assist in the choice of the appropriate sampling method for the measurement application under consideration. ISO 11338-1:2003 is not applicable to the sampling of fugitive releases of PAHs. NOTE Methods for sample preparation, clean-up and analysis are described in ISO 11338-2 and are intended to be combined with one of the sampling methods described in ISO 11338-1 to complete the whole measurement procedure.

ASTM D6784-16

Standard Test Method for Elemental, Oxidized, Particle-Bound and Total Mercury in Flue Gas Generated from Coal-Fired Stationary Sources (Ontario Hydro Method)

1.1 This test method applies to the determination of elemental, oxidized, particle-bound, and total mercury emissions from coal-fired stationary sources. 1.2 This test method is applicable to elemental, oxidized, particle-bound, and total mercury concentrations ranging from approximately 0.5 to 100 g/Nm 3 . 1.3 This test method describes equipment and procedures for obtaining samples from effluent ducts and stacks, equipment and procedures for laboratory analysis, and procedures for calculating results. 1.4 This test method is applicable for sampling elemental, oxidized, and particle-bound mercury in flue gases of coal-fired stationary sources. It may not be suitable at all measurement locations, particularly those with high particulate loadings, as explained in Section 16 . 1.5 Method applicability is limited to flue gas stream temperatures within the thermal stability range of the sampling probe and filter components. 1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.7 This standard requires users to be familiar with EPA stack-gas sampling procedures as stated in EPA Methods 1 4, Method 5, and Method 17. 1.8 The method requires a high level of experience and quality control both in the field testing and analytical procedures in order to obtain high quality data. 1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.