Radiation

Radiation particle testing standards are published by ASTM, IEC, and ISO. ASTM standards cover Calculating Absorbed Dose From Gamma or X Radiation, Application of CaF2(Mn) Thermoluminescence Dosimeters in Mixed Neutron-Photon Environments, Selection and Use of Mathematical Methods for Calculating Absorbed Dose in Radiation Processing Applications, Measurement of Mechanical Properties During Charged-Particle Irradiation, and Investigating the Effects of Neutron Radiation Damage Using Charged-Particle Irradiation. The IEC standard covers Electronic counting dosemeters for pulsed fields of ionizing radiation. The ISO standard covers Characteristics and methods of production of neutron reference fields.

ASTM E666-21

Standard Practice for Calculating Absorbed Dose From Gamma or X Radiation

1.1 This practice presents a technique for calculating the absorbed dose in a material from knowledge of the radiation field, the composition of the material, ( 1- 5 ) 2 , 3 and a related measurement. The procedure is applicable for X and gamma radiation provided the energy of the photons fall within the range from 0.01 to 20 MeV. 1.2 A method is given for calculating the absorbed dose in a material from the knowledge of the absorbed dose in another material exposed to the same radiation field. The procedure is restricted to homogeneous materials composed of the elements for which absorption coefficients have been tabulated. All 92 natural elements are tabulated in ( 2 ) . It also requires some knowledge of the energy spectrum of the radiation field produced by the source under consideration. Generally, the accuracy of this method is limited by the accuracy to which the energy spectrum of the radiation field is known. 1.3 The results of this practice are only valid if charged particle equilibrium exists in the material and at the depth of interest. Thus, this practice is not applicable for determining absorbed dose in the immediate vicinity of boundaries between materials of widely differing atomic numbers. For more information on this topic, see Practice E1249 . 1.4 Energy transport computer codes 4 exist that are formulated to calculate absorbed dose in materials more precisely than this method. To use these codes, more effort, time, and expense are required. If the situation warrants, such calculations should be used rather than the method described here. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

IEC/TS 62743 Ed. 1.0 en:2012

Radiation protection instrumentation - Electronic counting dosemeters for pulsed fields of ionizing radiation

IEC/TS 62743:2012(E) applies to all types of counting dosemeters, irrespective of the measuring quantity and the type of radiation intended to be measured. It ensures that a single radiation pulse can be correctly measured even if the dosemeter is in the internal state relevant for measuring background or environmental radiation. The characteristics of the dosemeter for repeated pulses is expected to be better than for one single radiation pulse with the same parameters but worse than for continuous radiation, i.e., in between of the characteristics for these two extreme conditions. Considers the pulsation of the radiation field as an additional influence quantity like particle energy and direction of radiation incidence. Therefore, the tests described are additional to all the tests in the respective standards.

ASTM E2450-16

Standard Practice for Application of CaF2(Mn) Thermoluminescence Dosimeters in Mixed Neutron-Photon Environments

1.1 This practice describes a procedure for correcting a CaF 2 (Mn) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) reading for its response to neutrons during the irradiation. The neutron response may be subtracted from the total TLD response to give the gamma-ray response. In fields with a large neutron contribution to the total response, this procedure may result in large uncertainties. 1.2 More precise experimental techniques may be applied if the uncertainty derived from this practice is larger than the level that the user can accept. These more precise techniques are not discussed here. The references in Section 8 describe some of these techniques. 1.3 This practice does not discuss effects on the TLD reading from neutron interactions with the material surrounding the TLD and used to ensure a charged particle equilibrium. These effects will depend on the isotopic composition of the surrounding material and its thickness, and on the incident neutron spectrum ( 1 ) . 2 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard.

ASTM E2232-21

Standard Guide for Selection and Use of Mathematical Methods for Calculating Absorbed Dose in Radiation Processing Applications

1.1 This guide describes different mathematical methods that may be used to calculate absorbed dose and criteria for their selection. Absorbed-dose calculations can determine the effectiveness of the radiation process, estimate the absorbed-dose distribution in product, or supplement or complement, or both, the measurement of absorbed dose. 1.2 Radiation processing is an evolving field and annotated examples are provided in Annex A6 to illustrate the applications where mathematical methods have been successfully applied. While not limited by the applications cited in these examples, applications specific to neutron transport, radiation therapy and shielding design are not addressed in this document. 1.3 This guide covers the calculation of radiation transport of electrons and photons with energies up to 25 MeV. 1.4 The mathematical methods described include Monte Carlo, point kernel, discrete ordinate, semi-empirical and empirical methods. 1.5 This guide is limited to the use of general purpose software packages for the calculation of the transport of charged or uncharged particles and photons, or both, from various types of sources of ionizing radiation. This standard is limited to the use of these software packages or other mathematical methods for the determination of spatial dose distributions for photons emitted following the decay of 137 Cs or 60 Co, for energetic electrons from particle accelerators, or for X-rays generated by electron accelerators. 1.6 This guide assists the user in determining if mathematical methods are a useful tool. This guide may assist the user in selecting an appropriate method for calculating absorbed dose. The user must determine whether any of these mathematical methods are appropriate for the solution to their specific application and what, if any, software to apply. Note 1: The user is urged to apply these predictive techniques while being aware of the need for experience and also the inherent limitations of both the method and the available software. Information pertaining to availability and updates to codes for modeling radiation transport, courses, workshops and meetings can be found in Annex A1 . For a basic understanding of radiation physics and a brief overview of method selection, refer to Annex A3 . 1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

ASTM E821-16

Standard Practice for Measurement of Mechanical Properties During Charged-Particle Irradiation

1.1 This practice covers the performance of mechanical tests on materials being irradiated with charged particles. These tests are designed to provide an understanding of the effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical behavior of materials. Practices are described that govern the test material, the particle beam, the experimental technique, and the damage calculations. Reference should be made to other ASTM standards, especially Practice E521 . Procedures are described that are applicable to creep and creep rupture tests made in tension and torsion test modes. 2 1.2 The word simulation is used here in a broad sense to imply an approximation of the relevant neutron irradiation environment. The degree of conformity can range from poor to nearly exact. The intent is to produce a correspondence between one or more aspects of the neutron and charged particle irradiations such that fundamental relationships are established between irradiation or material parameters and the material response. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

ASTM E521-16

Standard Practice for Investigating the Effects of Neutron Radiation Damage Using Charged-Particle Irradiation

1.1 This practice provides guidance on performing charged-particle irradiations of metals and alloys, although many of the methods may also be applied to ceramic materials. It is generally confined to studies of microstructural and microchemical changes induced by ions of low-penetrating power that come to rest in the specimen. Density changes can be measured directly and changes in other properties can be inferred. This information can be used to estimate similar changes that would result from neutron irradiation. More generally, this information is of value in deducing the fundamental mechanisms of radiation damage for a wide range of materials and irradiation conditions. 1.2 Where it appears, the word simulation should be understood to imply an approximation of the relevant neutron irradiation environment for the purpose of elucidating damage mechanisms. The degree of conformity can range from poor to nearly exact. The intent is to produce a correspondence between one or more aspects of the neutron and charged particle irradiations such that fundamental relationships are established between irradiation or material parameters and the material response. 1.3 The practice appears as follows:... 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

ISO 8529-1:2021

Neutron reference radiations fields - Part 1: Characteristics and methods of production

This document specifies the neutron reference radiation fields, in the energy range from thermal up to 20 MeV, for calibrating neutron-measuring devices used for radiation protection purposes and for determining their response as a function of neutron energy. This document is concerned only with the methods of producing and characterizing the neutron reference radiation fields. The procedures for applying these radiation fields for calibrations are described in References [1] and [2]. The neutron reference radiation fields specified are the following: — neutron fields from radionuclide sources, including neutron fields from sources in a moderator; — neutron fields produced by nuclear reactions with charged particles from accelerators; — neutron fields from reactors. In view of the methods of production and use of them, these neutron reference radiation fields are divided, for the purposes of this document, into the following three separate clauses: — In Clause 4, radionuclide neutron sources with wide spectra are specified for the calibration of neutron-measuring devices. These sources should be used by laboratories engaged in the routine calibration of neutron-measuring devices, the particular design of which has already been type tested. — In Clause 5, accelerator-produced monoenergetic neutrons and reactor-produced neutrons with wide or quasi monoenergetic spectra are specified for determining the response of neutron measuring devices as a function of neutron energy. Since these neutron reference radiation fields are produced at specialized and well-equipped laboratories, only the minimum of experimental detail is given. — In Clause 6, thermal neutron fields are specified. These fields can be produced by moderated radionuclide sources, accelerators, or reactors.