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Safety Standards for Pools, Spas, and Bathing

Pool and Spa standards, developed by ASTM International (ASTM), define safety specifications for pool alarms, vacuum release systems, safety covers, suction vent systems, and drowning prevention. These standards are intended to improve safety measures involving pools and spas.

According to the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) from 2007-2009 there was an average of 390 pool or spa-related drownings involving children younger than 15 years old; nearly 75% of those reported fatalities involved children under the age of five. Additionally, from 2009 to 2011 there was an average of 5,200 pool or spa-related emergency department-treated submersion injuries per year for children younger than 15.

The CPSC created a national public education campaign, called Pool Safely, which works with partners around the country in an effort to reduce child drownings, near-drowning submersions, and entrapment incidents in swimming pools and spas. The National Drowning Prevention Alliance and the USA Swimming Foundation have also partnered with the Pool Safely Campaign in order to teach children how to swim and educate parents and communities about the importance of learning to swim.

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ASTM F2387-21

Standard Specification for Manufactured Safety Vacuum Release Systems (SVRS) for Swimming Pools, Spas and Hot Tubs

1.1 This specification covers requirements for safety vacuum release systems (SVRS) for use on both residential and commercial swimming pools, spas, hot tubs, and wading pools. 1.2 This specification is intended to reduce the risk of entrapment by providing a rapid detection and rapid release of vacuum or preventing a high vacuum altogether when a person becomes entrapped at the suction outlet serving a pumping system. 1.3 This specification only applies to systems equipped with pumps of similar horsepower and flow rating to those actually tested. 1.4 SVRS units manufactured, previously sold and installed, prior to the publication of this specification, which were compliant to the previous version of this specification, are to be considered compliant with this specification. 1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.6 The following safety hazards caveat pertains only to the test methods section, Section 5 , of this specification. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM F2707-10(2018)e1

Standard Safety Performance Specification for Safe Design and Installation of Field Fabricated Suction-Limiting Vent Systems for Suction Entrapment Prevention in Swimming Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Wading Pools

1.1 This safety performance specification provides requirements for safety in design and installation when using a suction-limiting vent system for suction entrapment prevention in swimming pools, spas, hot tubs, or wading pools. 1.2 The purpose of the vent is to relieve the vacuum at the suction outlet(s) caused by any blockage of the suction outlet(s). The vent is intended to prevent body entrapment at the suction outlet(s) and may also mitigate limb entrapment. It is not intended to prevent other injuries caused by the suction outlet(s) such as hair entrapment, mechanical entrapment, or evisceration. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM F1346-91(2018)

Standard Performance Specification for Safety Covers and Labeling Requirements for All Covers for Swimming Pools, Spas and Hot Tubs

1.1 This specification establishes requirements for safety covers for swimming pools, spas, hot tubs, and wading pools (hereinafter referred to as pools, unless otherwise specified). When correctly installed and used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, this specification is intended to reduce the risk of drowning by inhibiting the access of children under five years of age to the water. 1.2 This specification includes performance tests to demonstrate the compliance or noncompliance to requirements herein stated for safety covers. It also includes marking requirements for all covers. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are given for information only. 1.4 The following safety hazards caveat pertains only to the test methods section, Section 9 , of this specification: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM F2208-08(2019)

Standard Safety Specification for Residential Pool Alarms

1.1 This safety specification covers safety and performance requirements for pool alarms for residential swimming pools and spas. 1.2 This safety specification describes devices intended to improve personal safety and reduce injuries or deaths. 1.3 This safety specification covers devices that provide for rapid and automatic detection and alarm in cases of unintentional, unsupervised or accidental entry of a child one year of age or older into the water of swimming pools or spas. 1.4 This safety specification is not intended to replace other standard safety requirements that should be in place, that is, adult supervision, fences, gates, locks, and so forth. 1.5 This safety specification covers four different types of alarms. 1.6 The detection criteria for this safety specification is for a child one year of age and older. 1.7 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.9 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM F462-79(2007)

Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Slip-Resistant Bathing Facilities

1.1 This consumer safety specification covers the slip resistance of bathtubs and shower structures or combinations, used for bathing or showering, or both, herein referred to as bathing facilities. 1.2 This specification establishes definitions, methods of testing the slip resistance of bathing facilities, and the in-use performance requirements needed to minimize the accidents caused by slipperiness during any reasonable use. 1.3 This consumer safety specification is intended to describe a means to reduce accidents to persons, especially children and the aged, resulting from the use of bathing facilities. The following safety hazards caveat pertains only to the test method portion, Section 8, of this specification. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM F446-19

Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Grab Bars and Accessories Installed in the Bathing Area

1.1 This consumer safety specification covers performance requirements, test methods, and levels of performance to ensure satisfactory functioning of the grab bars and accessory items (not including plumbing controls) during reasonable use to assist a person entering, leaving, or moving within the bathing area. 1.2 This consumer safety specification is intended to reduce the number of accidents by specifying requirements for grab bars and accessories designed to decrease the probability of slips and falls. 1.3 This consumer safety specification does not address the specific need of gang showers, island tubs, peninsula tubs, sunken tubs, or tubs 6 ft (1.8 m) or longer. 1.4 This consumer safety specification exempts shower stalls with both interior dimensions of 34 in. (864 mm) or less. 1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.6 The following precautionary caveat pertains only to the test method portion, Section 7 , of this specification. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM F444-88(2017)

Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Scald-Preventing Devices and Systems in Bathing Areas

1.1 This consumer safety specification covers scald-preventing devices and systems delivering water in bathing areas. 1.2 This specification establishes the minimum performance requirements for the devices and systems to minimize the risks associated with the hazards of scalds. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM F445-88(2017)

Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Thermal-Shock-Preventing Devices and Systems in Showering Areas

1.1 This consumer safety specification covers thermal-shock-preventing devices and systems delivering water to showering areas. 1.2 This specification establishes the minimum performance requirements for the devices and systems to minimize the risks associated with the hazards of thermal shock. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


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