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Controller Area Network - CAN

Controller Area Network (CAN) standards cover the CAN bus, designed and implemented to allow different components within a vehicle to communicate with each other without needing a host computer. As a textbook example of interoperability, standardization is critical to the functioning of the system as a whole, especially with the consideration that not all the cooperating parts will be made by the same manufacturer. Specified in ISO 11898, this series of standards has been implemented worldwide and the concepts within extend beyond their original design for automotive applications into other industrial fields.

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ISO 11898 - Road Vehicles Controller Area Network (CAN) Package

ISO 11898-1, ISO 11898-2, ISO 11898-3, ISO 11898-4, ISO 11898-5 and ISO 11898-6

ISO 11898 - Road Vehicles Controller Area Network (CAN) Package addresses the data link layer, signaling, high speed access unit, time triggered communication and low speed, fault tolerant, medium dependent interface of the control area network within road vehicles. ISO 11898 - Road Vehicles Controller Area Network (CAN) Package includes: ISO 11898-1:2015 ISO 11898-2:2016 ISO 11898-3:2006 ISO 11898-3/Cor1:2006 ISO 11898-4:2004 ISO 11898-5:2007 (Historical Document) ISO 11898-6:2013 (Historical Document)


ISO 11898-1:2015

Road vehicles - Controller area network (CAN) - Part 1: Data link layer and physical signalling

ISO 11898-1:2015 specifies the characteristics of setting up an interchange of digital information between modules implementing the CAN data link layer. Controller area network is a serial communication protocol, which supports distributed real-time control and multiplexing for use within road vehicles and other control applications. ISO 11898-1:2015 specifies the Classical CAN frame format and the newly introduced CAN Flexible Data Rate Frame format. The Classical CAN frame format allows bit rates up to 1 Mbit/s and payloads up to 8 byte per frame. The Flexible Data Rate frame format allows bit rates higher than 1 Mbit/s and payloads longer than 8 byte per frame. ISO 11898-1:2015 describes the general architecture of CAN in terms of hierarchical layers according to the ISO reference model for open systems interconnection (OSI) according to ISO/IEC 7498 1. The CAN data link layer is specified according to ISO/IEC 8802 2 and ISO/IEC 8802 3. ISO 11898-1:2015 contains detailed specifications of the following: logical link control sub-layer; medium access control sub-layer; and physical coding sub-layer. There are three implementation options. They are the following: support of the Classical CAN frame format only, not tolerating the Flexible Data Rate frame format; support of the Classical CAN frame format and tolerating the Flexible Data Rate frame format; and support of the Classical CAN frame format and the Flexible Data Rate frame format. The last option is recommended to be implemented for new designs.


ISO 11898-2:2016

Road vehicles - Controller area network (CAN) - Part 2: High-speed medium access unit

ISO 11898-2:2016 specifies the high-speed physical media attachment (HS-PMA) of the controller area network (CAN), a serial communication protocol that supports distributed real-time control and multiplexing for use within road vehicles. This includes HS-PMAs without and with low-power mode capability as well as with selective wake-up functionality. The physical media dependant sublayer is not in the scope of this document.


ISO 11898-3:2006

Road vehicles - Controller area network (CAN) - Part 3: Low-speed, fault-tolerant, medium-dependent interface

ISO 11898-3:2006 specifies characteristics of setting up an interchange of digital information between electronic control units of road vehicles equipped with the controller area network (CAN) at transmission rates above 40 kBit/s up to 125 kBit/s. The CAN is a serial communication protocol which supports distributed control and multiplexing.


ISO 11898-4:2004

Road vehicles - Controller area network (CAN) - Part 4: Time-triggered communication

ISO 11898-4:2004 specifies time-triggered communication in the controller area network (CAN): a serial communication protocol that supports distributed real-time control and multiplexing for use within road vehicles. It is applicable to setting up a time-triggered interchange of digital information between electronic control units (ECU) of road vehicles equipped with CAN, and specifies the frame synchronisation entity that coordinates the operation of both logical link and media access controls in accordance with ISO 11898-1, to provide the time-triggered communication schedule.


ISO 11898-6:2013

Road vehicles - Controller area network (CAN) - Part 6: High-speed medium access unit with selective wake-up functionality

ISO 11898-6:2013 specifies the controller area network (CAN) physical layer for transmission rates up to 1 Mbit/s. It describes the medium access unit (MAU) functions. ISO 11898-6:2013 represents an extension of ISO 11898 2 and ISO 11898 5, specifying a selective wake-up mechanism using configurable CAN frames. Physical layer implementations according to ISO 11898-6:2013 are compliant with all parameters of ISO 11898 2 and ISO 11898 5. Implementations according to ISO 11898-6:2013, ISO 11898 2 and ISO 11898 5 are interoperable and can be used at the same time within one network.


ISO 14229-2:2021

Road vehicles - Unified diagnostic services (UDS) - Part 2: Session layer services

This document specifies common session layer services and requirements to provide independence between unified diagnostic services (ISO 14229-1) and all transport protocols and network layer services (e.g. ISO 13400-2 DoIP, ISO 15765-2 DoCAN, ISO 10681-2 communication on FlexRay, ISO 14230-2 DoK-Line, and ISO 20794-3 CXPI). This document specifies a common service primitive interface between OSI layer 5 (session) and layer 4 (transport) via so-called service request/indication/confirmation primitives.


ISO 14229-3:2012

Road vehicles - Unified diagnostic services (UDS) - Part 3: Unified diagnostic services on CAN implementation (UDSonCAN)

ISO 14229-3:2012 specifies the implementation of a common set of unified diagnostic services (UDS) on controller area networks (CAN) in road vehicles (UDSonCAN). It references ISO 14229-1 and ISO 14229-2 and specifies implementation requirements of the diagnostic services to be used for diagnostic communication over CAN. It does not specify any requirement for the in-vehicle CAN bus architecture.


ISO 15765-1:2011

Road vehicles - Diagnostic communication over Controller Area Network (DoCAN) - Part 1: General information and use case definition

ISO 15765-1:2011 gives an overview of the structure and the partitioning of ISO 15765, and shows the relationships between the different parts. It also defines the diagnostic network architecture. The terminology defined in this part is common for all diagnostic networks and is used throughout all parts of ISO 15765. The diagnostic communication over controller area network (DoCAN) protocol supports the standardized service primitive interface as specified in ISO 14229 2.


ISO 15765-2:2016

Road vehicles - Diagnostic communication over Controller Area Network (DoCAN) - Part 2: Transport protocol and network layer services

ISO 15765-2:2016 specifies a transport protocol and network layer services tailored to meet the requirements of CAN based vehicle network systems on controller area networks as specified in ISO 11898 1. It has been defined in accordance with the diagnostic services established in ISO 14229 1 and ISO 15031 5 but is not limited to use with them and is also compatible with most other communication needs for in vehicle networks. ISO 11898 1 specifies variable length CAN frames with a maximum payload size dependent on the protocol device used. A CLASSICAL CAN protocol device can transmit/receive frames with payload sizes ranging from 0 bytes to 8 bytes per frame. A CAN FD (flexible data rate) protocol device can transmit/receive frames with payload sizes from 0 bytes to 64 bytes. A CAN FD protocol device is also capable of transmitting/receiving CLASSICAL CAN frames. The diagnostic communication over controller area network (DoCAN) protocol supports the standardized service primitive interface as specified in ISO 14229 2 (UDS). ISO 15765-2:2016 provides the transport protocol and network layer services to support different application-layer implementations such as - enhanced vehicle diagnostics (emissions-related system diagnostics beyond legislated functionality, non-emissions-related system diagnostics), - emissions-related on-board diagnostics (OBD) as specified in ISO 15031, - world-wide harmonized on-board diagnostics (WWH-OBD) as specified in ISO 27145, and - end of life activation on on-board pyrotechnic devices (ISO 26021). The transport protocol specifies an unconfirmed communication. NOTE This part of ISO 15765 does not determine whether CLASSICAL CAN, CAN FD or both are recommended or required to be implemented by other standards referencing this part of ISO 15765.


ISO 15765-4:2021

Road vehicles - Diagnostic communication over Controller Area Network (DoCAN) - Part 4: Requirements for emissions-related systems

This document specifies requirements for CAN-based communication systems between the in-vehicle network and the diagnostic link connector of the vehicle. This document does not specify any requirements related to the in-vehicle CAN network architecture. This document specifies the requirements to enable the in-vehicle CAN-based communication systems to establish, maintain, and terminate communication with the devices connected to the diagnostic link connector.


ISO 16844-4:2015

Road vehicles - Tachograph systems - Part 4: CAN interface

ISO 16844-4:2015 specifies the controller area network (CAN) interface for the interchange of digital information between a road vehicle's tachograph system and vehicle units, and within the tachograph system itself. It specifies parameters of, and requirements for, the application of physical and data link layers of the electrical connection used in the electronic systems.


ISO 16844-5:2004

Road vehicles - Tachograph systems - Part 5: Secured CAN interface

ISO 16844-5:2004 specifies the secured interchange of digital information between a road vehicle's tachograph system and vehicle units, and within the tachograph system itself. This type of interchange will be used for CAN communication or diagnostic services on CAN (controller area network), where there is need to protect interchanged parameters against fraud.


ISO 26021-4:2009

Road vehicles - End-of-life activation of on-board pyrotechnic devices - Part 4: Additional communication line with bidirectional communication

ISO 26021-4:2009 defines the requirements of redundancy hardware or software systems independent from the controller area network (CAN) line, which are activated by the additional communication line (ACL hardware line). It describes the additional sequences of the deployment process, and the technical details for the direct hardware connection between the pyrotechnic device deployment tool (PDT) and the pyrotechnic control unit (PCU).


ISO 27145-3:2012

Road vehicles - Implementation of World-Wide Harmonized On-Board Diagnostics (WWH-OBD) communication requirements - Part 3: Common message dictionary

ISO 27145-3:2012 defines the implementation of a subset of unified diagnostic services (UDS) specified in ISO 14229-1. The diagnostic services are used to communicate the diagnostic data defined in ISO 27145-2. The subset of unified diagnostic services derives from the requirements stated in the World-Wide Harmonized On-Board Diagnostic Global Technical Regulations (WWH-OBD GTR). The common message set defined in ISO 27145-3:2012 is independent of the underlying transport, network, data link and physical layer. ISO 27145-3:2012 does not specify any requirements for the in-vehicle network architecture. ISO 27145-3:2012 is compatible with ISO 14229-1 and includes provisions to support the data set of SAE J1979-DA and SAE J2012-DA WWH-OBD. ISO 27145-3:2012 is intended for use with ISO 27145-4, which is the entry point for the protocol initialization and is based on two different data links: · Diagnostic communication over Controller Area Network (DoCAN), ISO 15765 1, ISO 15765 2, ISO 15765 4; · Diagnostic communication over Internet Protocol (DoIP), ISO 13400 (all parts). ISO 27145-3:2012 includes capabilities required to satisfy OBD regulations for multiple regions, vehicle types, model years, and engine types. Those regulations are not yet final for some regions and are expected to change in the future. ISO 27145-3:2012 does not attempt to interpret the regulations and does not include applicability of the included diagnostic services and data parameters for various vehicle applications. It is intended that users of ISO 27145-3:2012 verify the applicability of each of its clauses for a specific vehicle, engine, model year and region.


ISO 27145-4:2016

Road vehicles - Implementation of World-Wide Harmonized On-Board Diagnostics (WWH-OBD) communication requirements - Part 4: Connection between vehicle and test equipment

ISO 27145-4:2016 defines the requirements to successfully establish, maintain and terminate communication with a vehicle that implements the requirements of the WWH-OBD GTR (Global technical regulation No. 5; see Reference [16]). This requires plug and play communication capabilities for the vehicle, as well as for any test equipment that intends to establish communication with a vehicle. This part of ISO 27145 details all the OSI layer requirements to achieve this goal. ISO 27145-4:2016 is intended to become the single communication standard for access to information relating to vehicle on-board diagnostics (VOBD). To allow for a smooth migration from the existing communication standards to this future world-wide standardized communication standard, the communication concept as specified in this part of ISO 27145 is based on two different data links: - diagnostic communication over Controller Area Network (DoCAN), ISO 15765 4; - diagnostic communication over Internet Protocol (DoIP), ISO 13400 (all parts). NOTE It is intended that this part of ISO 27145 will be extended as necessary upon introduction of additional communication media. IMPORTANT ? Use cases deriving from country-specific implementation of GTR No. 5 into local legislation are not included in this part of ISO 27145.


ISO 11898-5:2007

Road vehicles - Controller area network (CAN) - Part 5: High-speed medium access unit with low-power mode

ISO 11898-5:2007 specifies the CAN physical layer for transmission rates up to 1 Mbit/s for use within road vehicles. It describes the medium access unit functions as well as some medium dependent interface features according to ISO 8802-2. ISO 11898-5:2007 represents an extension of ISO 11898-2, dealing with new functionality for systems requiring low-power consumption features while there is no active bus communication. Physical layer implementations according to ISO 11898-5:2007 are compliant with all parameters of ISO 11898 2, but are defined differently within ISO 11898-5:2007. Implementations according to ISO 11898-5:2007 and ISO 11898-2 are interoperable and can be used at the same time within one network.


ISO 16845-1:2016

Road vehicles - Controller area network (CAN) conformance test plan - Part 1: Data link layer and physical signalling

ISO 16845-1:2016 specifies the conformance test plan for the CAN data link layer and the physical signalling as standardized in ISO 11898 1. This includes the Classical CAN protocols as well as the CAN FD protocols.


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