Turbidity Measurement in Wastewater

Standards for wastewater measurements address the standard test methods, guides, and practices for measuring turbidity, flow, and other properties of wastewater, as well as sampling. Given the focus on testing and measurement, standardization of this field of wastewater management has been greatly contributed to by the efforts of ASTM International, previously known as the American Society for Testing and Materials.

For standards addressing content testing, see our dedicated pages for element specific wastewater measurements, and bacteria, biodegradable content, and toxicity wastewater measurements.

ASTM D7726-11(2016)e1

Standard Guide for The Use of Various Turbidimeter Technologies for Measurement of Turbidity in Water

1.1 This guide covers the best practices for use of various turbidimeter designs for measurement of turbidity in waters including: drinking water, wastewater, industrial waters, and for regulatory and environmental monitoring. This guide covers both continuous and static measurements. 1.2 Depending on the monitoring goals and desired data requirements, certain technologies will deliver more desirable results for a given application. This guide will help the user align a technology to a given application with respect to best practices for data collection. 1.3 Some designs are applicable for either a lower or upper measurement range. This guide will help provide guidance to the best-suited technologies based given range of turbidity. 1.4 Modern electronic turbidimeters are comprised of many parts that can cause them to produce different results on samples. The wavelength of incident light used, detector type, detector angle, number of detectors (and angles), and optical pathlength are all design criteria that may be different among instruments. When these sensors are all calibrated with the sample turbidity standards, they will all read the standards the same. However, samples comprise of completely different matrices and may measure quite differently among these different technologies. 1.5 This guide does not purport to cover all available technologies for high-level turbidity measurement. 1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.8 This guide does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Refer to the MSDSs for all chemicals used in this procedure.

ASTM D7315-17

Standard Test Method for Determination of Turbidity Above 1 Turbidity Unit (TU) in Static Mode

This test method covers the static determination of turbidity in water. Static refers to a sample that is removed from its source and tested in an isolated instrument. (See Section 4.)

ASTM D7725-17

Standard Test Method for the Continuous Measurement of Turbidity Above 1 Turbidity Unit (TU)

1.1 This test method covers the on-line and in-line determination of high-level turbidity in water that is greater than 1.0 turbidity units (TU) in municipal, industrial and environmental usage. 1.2 In principle, there are three basic applications for on-line measurement set ups. This first is the slipstream (bypass) sample technique. For the slipstream sample technique a portion of sample is transported out of the process and through the measurement apparatus. It is then either transported back to the process or to waste. The second is the in-line measurement where the sensor is brought directly into the process (see Fig. 8). The third basic method is for in-situ monitoring of sample waters. This principle is based on the insertion of a sensor into the sample itself as the sample is being processed. The in-situ use in this test method is intended for the monitoring of water during any step within a processing train, including immediately before or after the process itself. 1.3 This test method is applicable to the measurement of turbidities greater than 1.0 TU. The absolute range is dictated by the technology that is employed. 1.4 The upper end of the measurement range is left undefined because different technologies described in this test method can cover very different ranges of turbidity. 1.5 Many of the turbidity units and instrument designs covered in this test method are numerically equivalent in calibration when a common calibration standard is applied across those designs listed in Table 1 . Measurement of a common calibration standard of a defined value will also produce equivalent results across these technologies. This test method prescribes the assignment of a determined turbidity values to the technology used to determine those values. Numerical equivalence to turbidity standards is observed between different technologies but is not expected across a common sample. Improved traceability beyond the scope of this test method may be practiced and would include the listing of the make and model number of the instrument used to determine the turbidity values. 1.5.1 In this test method, calibration standards are often defined in NTU values, but the other assigned turbidity units, such as those in Table 1 are equivalent. For example, a 1 NTU formazin standard is also a 1 FNU, a 1 FAU, a 1 BU, and so forth. 1.6 This test method does not purport to cover all available technologies for high-level turbidity measurement. 1.7 This test method was tested on different waters, and with standards that will serve as surrogates to samples. It is the user s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for waters of untested matrices. 1.8 Those samples with the highest particle densities typically prove to be the most difficult to measure. In these cases, the process monitoring method can be considered with adequate measurement protocols installed. 1.9 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.10 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Refer to the MSDSs for all chemicals used in this procedure. 1.11 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.