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ISO/IEC 15149:2011

Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Magnetic field area network (MFAN)

ISO/IEC 15149:2011 specifies the physical layer and media access control layer protocols of a wireless network over a magnetic field in a low frequency band (~300 kHz), for wireless communication in harsh environments (i.e. around metal, underwater, underground, etc.).

The physical layer protocol is designed for the following scope:

  • low carrier frequency for large magnetic field area and reliable communication in harsh environments;
  • simple and robust modulation for a low implementation cost and error performance;
  • variable coding and bandwidth for a link adaptation.

The media access control layer protocol is designed for the following scope:

  • simple and efficient network topology for low power consumption;
  • variable superframe structure for compact and efficient data transmission;
  • dynamic address assignment for small packet size and efficient address management.

ISO/IEC 15149:2011 supports several kbps data transmission in a wireless network within a distance of several metres. It can be applied to various services such as the following areas:

  • in the environmental industry, to manage pollution levels in soil and water using wireless underground or underwater sensors;
  • in the construction industry, to monitor the integrity of buildings and bridges using wireless, inner-corrosion sensors;
  • in the consumer-electronics industry, to detect food spoilage in wet, airtight storage areas and to transfer the sensing data from the inside to the outside;
  • in the agricultural industry, to manage the moisture level as well as mineral status in soil using buried wireless sensors;
  • in the transportation industry, to manage road conditions and traffic information using wireless underground sensors.


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International Organization for Standardization [iso]


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As the voice of the U.S. standards and conformity assessment system, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) empowers its members and constituents to strengthen the U.S. marketplace position in the global economy while helping to assure the safety and health of consumers and the protection of the environment.

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