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ASTM D93-16a

Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester

1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the flash point of petroleum products in the temperature range from 40 °C to 370 °C by a manual Pensky-Martens closed-cup apparatus or an automated Pensky-Martens closed-cup apparatus, and the determination of the flash point of biodiesel in the temperature range of 60 °C to 190 °C by an automated Pensky-Martens closed cup apparatus.

1.2 Procedure A is applicable to distillate fuels (diesel, biodiesel blends, kerosine, heating oil, turbine fuels), new and in-use lubricating oils, and other homogeneous petroleum liquids not included in the scope of Procedure B or Procedure C.

1.3 Procedure B is applicable to residual fuel oils, cutback residua, used lubricating oils, mixtures of petroleum liquids with solids, petroleum liquids that tend to form a surface film under test conditions, or are petroleum liquids of such kinematic viscosity that they are not uniformly heated under the stirring and heating conditions of Procedure A.

1.4 Procedure C is applicable to biodiesel (B100). Since a flash point of residual alcohol in biodiesel is difficult to observe by manual flash point techniques, automated apparatus with electronic flash point detection have been found suitable.

1.5 These test methods are applicable for the detection of contamination of relatively nonvolatile or nonflammable materials with volatile or flammable materials.

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