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CSA A23.1-2014/A23.2-2014

A23.1-14/A23.2-14 - Concrete materials and methods of concrete construction / Test methods and standard practices for concrete

A23.1-14/A23.2-14 - Concrete materials and methods of concrete construction / Test methods and standard practices for concrete

Preface

This is the twelfth edition of the combined CSA A23.1/A23.2, Concrete materials and methods of concrete construction/Test methods and standard practices for concrete. These Standards are part of the CSA A23 series on concrete and supersede the previous editions published in 2009, 2004, 2000, 1994, 1990, 1977, 1973, 1967, 1960, 1942, and 1929. There have been many technical, editorial, and formatting changes throughout this edition; the most significant technical changes are as follows:

(a) Inclusion of the ability to use blends of Portland-limestone cement and supplementary cementing materials for sulphate-classes of exposure (S-1, S-2, S-3). Such cementing materials are to be used with well-defined compositional and testing requirements, as outlined in Clause 4.1.1.6.2 and Tables 2, 3 and 7. This change follows upon the introduction of Portland-limestone cements in the 2009 A23.1 edition.

(b) Refinement of the treatment of residential concrete (R classes of exposure), which is now integrated into the main tables (Tables 1 and 2), and improvements to the requirements of such concretes have been adopted (Table 2). This change follows upon the initial adoption of R class concretes into A23.1 in the 2009 version of this Standard. The reader's attention is drawn to Note 1 of Clause 9.1.

(c) Clarification of the various responsibilities for those involved in concrete construction are given within Clause 4.

(d) Clause 4 now includes a provision for the option to optimize the gradation of the entire aggregate component (coarse and fine combined).

(e) A new Annex Q outlines a simple method to optimize combined aggregate gradation.

(f) More specific instructions concerning concrete temperature limits and construction requirements for cold- and hot-weather concreting are contained within Clause 7.

(g) Within Clause 8, new sections deal with controlled low-strength material and shotcrete.

(h) Two new exposure-classes of concrete are defined in Tables 1 and 2: N-CF class pertains to interior concrete floors with a steel-trowel finish and A-XL, similar to the C-XL class, is for structurally reinforced concrete exposed to manure or silage gases or both.

(i) Other significant modifications to the technical requirements of the various exposure classes can be found in Table 2.

(j) A new Annex O on aggregates made from recycled concrete for use in hydraulic cement concrete has been added.

(k) A new Annex P provides information on the impact of sulphides in concrete aggregates on concrete behaviour.

(l) A new Annex R provides guidelines for residential concrete construction. This Annex reinstates much of the construction guidance previously found in the CSA A438 standard, which has been withdrawn.

(m) For CSA A23.2, there has generally been an extensive review, restructuring, and modernization of this Standard to provide a consistent suite of relevant test methods.

(n) Two new test methods have been added to CSA A23.2: A23.2-22C, Scaling resistance of concrete surfaces exposed to deicing chemicals using mass loss, and A23.2-23C, Electrical indication of concrete's ability to resist chloride ion penetration.

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A23.1-14 - Concrete materials and methods of concrete construction

Introduction

This Standard is intended to be used in its entirety. Caution should be exercised in extracting individual clauses and using them in project specifications, since taking them out of context can change their meaning.

A number of notes and several annexes, inserted for guidance, can in some cases be made mandatory by appropriate references in contract documents.

Many clauses provide alternatives and require choices to be made by the user of this Standard. The actual choices should be clearly identified in contract documents.

Scope

1.1 General

This Standard provides the requirements for materials and methods of construction for

(a) cast-in-place concrete and concrete precast in the field; and

(b) residential concrete used in the construction of buildings conforming to Part 9 of the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC).

1.2
This Standard does not specify the following:

(a) requirements for the design of concrete structures, which are provided in CSA A23.3 and CAN/CSA-S6;

(b) designs of specialty concrete products, which are described in separate CSA Group Standards;

(c) test methods for concrete, which are provided in CSA A23.2;

(d) design provisions governing the fire resistance of reinforced concrete structures, which are set out in the NBCC;

(e) requirements for the plant production of precast concrete, which are provided in CAN/CSA-A23.4; and

(f) use of proprietary materials or methods of construction.

Note: Proprietary materials or methods of construction may be permitted by the owner under a separate specification, provided that the quality of the resulting construction meets the minimum requirements of this Standard.

1.3 Precasting of concrete in the field

1.3.1
At the option of the owner, precasting of concrete in the field or in a plant (temporary or permanent) is governed by this Standard or by CSA A23.4, except as limited by Clauses 1.3.2, 1.3.3, and 1.3.4 of this Standard.
Note: Guidelines for such a choice are provided in CSA A23.4.

1.3.2
Precast products that may be produced in accordance with this Standard include conventionally reinforced elements of structures, such as tilt-up walls, stair flights, landings, balcony slabs, lintels, and sills. Products requiring prestressing or post-tensioning are produced in accordance with CSA A23.4.

Note: For references to tilt-up construction, see PCA PA163 and ACI 551R.

1.3.3
If tolerances equivalent to the requirements of CSA A23.4 are desired, then CSA A23.4 is specified for all precasting operations.

1.3.4
The requirements of CSA A23.4 are applicable to pretensioned concrete and precast concrete used in segmental construction.

1.4 Parking garages

For parking garages, the additional requirements of CSA S413 are applicable.

1.5 Supplementary specifications

In addition to the requirements of this Standard, the owner may elect to include supplementary specifications to address proprietary materials and methods of construction, or any other elements not dealt with in this Standard, in order to ensure that the desired quality level is maintained.

1.6 Terminology

In CSA Standards, shall is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; should is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; may is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the standard; and can is used to express possibility or capability.

Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.

Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.

Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.

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A23.2-14 - Test methods and standard practices for concrete

Scope

1.1 General

This Standard covers the principal test methods for hardened and freshly mixed concrete and for concrete materials, as specified in CSA A23.1 and CSA A23.4. The test methods are organized as follows:

(a) aggregate test methods;

(b) miscellaneous;

(c) concrete test methods; and

(d) dimensional (moulds).

1.2 Hazards

This Standard does not purport to address the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this Standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Note: Since many users provide individual copies of the test methods for use in the laboratory, the Hazards clause is repeated in each test method.

1.3 Dimensions

This Standard is presented in metric units in accordance with CAN/CSA-Z234.1.

Note: The ASTM Standards that are referenced herein are often based on the imperial system, with soft metric equivalents.

Where ASTM Standards are referenced, the appropriate metric units in the ASTM Standards should be used wherever possible.

When the ASTM Standards refer to other ASTM Standards for which there are equivalent CSA Standards, the latter Standards should be used to ensure a continuity in such things as sieve sizes, metric units, and other particular differences between the Standards.

1.4 Terminology

In CSA Standards, shall is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; should is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; may is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the standard; and can is used to express possibility or capability.

Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.

Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.

Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.


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