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Radon Testing Standards

Radon testing standards cover both measurement and prevention/mitigation during the design phase. With multiple standards developers contributing to the body of knowledge, standardization provides a resource for home builders and safety inspections throughout the building's life-cycle. Different structures require different measurement methods, and AARST has published seperate standards for these, with schools, large buildings, multifamily homes, and townhouses being addressed.Radon measurement requires accurate and precise instruments and procedures, and ASTM, ISO, and IEC have developed standards that address this aspect of radon testing.

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ANSI/AARST MAH-2014

Protocol for Conducting Measurements of Radon and Radon Decay Products in Homes

This standard of practice specifies minimum requirements and general guidance for measuring radon concentrations in single-family residences. This standard applies to testing structures whether conducted for real estate or non-real-estate purposes. The purpose of test protocols is to consistently produce, to the extent possible, reliable and repeatable radon measurements. Radon measurements are conducted to determine if radon mitigation is necessary in order to protect current and future occupants.


ANSI/AARST MALB-2014

Protocol for Conducting Measurements of Radon and Radon Decay Products In Schools and Large Buildings

This standard of practice specifies procedures, minimum requirements and general guidance for measurement of radon and radon decay product concentrations in schools and large buildings. This document includes: I.) Informational Introduction to Radon; II.) Informational Guidance for Building Managers; and III.) Protocol for Conducting Measurements of Radon and Radon Decay Products in Schools and Large Buildings.


ANSI/AARST MAMF-2017

Protocol for Conducting Measurements of Radon and Radon Decay Products in Multifamily Buildings

This standard of practice specifies procedures, minimum requirements and general guidance for measurement of radon and radon decay product concentrations in Multifamily buildings that have more than one attached dwelling. Provided with this document is an "Informational Introduction to Radon" and an "MAMF Companion Guidance" document that includes informational guidance for residence managers.


ANSI/AARST RMS-LB-2018

Radon Mitigation Standards for Schools and Large Buildings

This standard of practice specifies minimum requirements and general guidance for mitigation of radon and soil gas in existing schools and large buildings. The techniques addressed in this standard provide whole-building consideration yet also apply to portions of a building or individual occupied spaces. Improvements to RMS-LB 2018 include harmonized provisions with ANSI/AARST standards RMS-MF (multifamily), SGM-SF (existing homes) and CC-1000 (new construction).


ANSI/AARST RMS-MF-2018

Radon Mitigation Standards for Multifamily Buildings

This standard of practice specifies minimum requirements and general guidance for mitigation of radon and soil gas in existing multifamily buildings. The techniques addressed in this standard provide whole-building consideration yet also apply to portions of a building or individual occupied spaces. Improvements to RMS-MF 2018 include harmonized provisions with ANSI/AARST standards RMS-LB (schools and large buildings), SGM-SF (existing homes) and CC-1000 (new construction).


ANSI/AARST CCAH-2013

Reducing Radon in New Construction of One & Two Family Dwellings and Townhouses

This standard applies only to newly constructed one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses. Provisions stipulate prescriptive requirements as commonly employed for code adoption. Additional guidance is provided in introductions, exhibits and appendices. As clarified practices for radon resistant new construction, it is denoted as RRNC 2.0. Purposes include to provide a clear set of minimum requirements for Rough-In of a mitigation system; and activation, if required.


ANSI/AARST SGM-SF-2017

Soil Gas Mitigation Standards for Existing Homes

This standard of practice specifies practices, minimum requirements and general guidance for reducing soil gas entry into existing homes in order to mitigate occupant exposures to certain hazardous soil gases, including radon gas, chemical vapors and other hazardous gases. This standard of practice addresses a wide range of mitigation methods and additionally provides guidance for health and safety, system design, system installation, and ongoing stewardship. This standard of practice is applicable to residential structures to include: those not more than three stories above grade in height; those often classified as single-family structures; and those that contain not more than four attached dwelling units on a contiguous foundation.


ASTM E2121-13

Standard Practice for Installing Radon Mitigation Systems in Existing Low-Rise Residential Buildings

1.1 This practice describes methods for reducing radon entry into existing attached and detached residential buildings three stories or less in height. This practice is intended for use by trained, certified or licensed, or both, or otherwise qualified individuals. 1.2 These methods are based on radon mitigation techniques that have been effective in reducing radon levels in a wide range of residential buildings and soil conditions. These fan powered mitigation methods are listed in Appendix X1 . More detailed information is contained in references cited throughout this practice. 1.3 This practice is intended to provide radon mitigation contractors with a uniform set of practices that will ensure a high degree of safety and the likelihood of success in retrofitting low rise residential buildings with radon mitigation systems. 1.4 The methods described in this practice apply to currently occupied or formerly occupied residential buildings, including buildings converted or being converted to residential use, as well as residential buildings changed or being changed by addition(s) or alteration(s), or both. The radon reduction activities performed on new dwellings, while under construction, before occupancy, and for up to one year after occupancy, are covered by Guide E1465 . 1.5 This practice also is intended as a model set of practices, which can be adopted or modified by state and local jurisdictions, to fulfill objectives of their specific radon contractor certification or licensure programs. Radon mitigation performed in accordance with this practice is considered ordinary repair. 1.6 The methods addressed in this practice include the following categories of contractor activity: general practices, building investigation, systems design, systems installation, materials, monitors and labeling, post-mitigation testing, and documentation. 1.7 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See Section 6 for specific safety hazards.


ASTM D6327-10(2016)

Standard Test Method for Determination of Radon Decay Product Concentration and Working Level in Indoor Atmospheres by Active Sampling on a Filter

1.1 This test method provides instruction for using the grab sampling filter technique to determine accurate and reproducible measurements of indoor radon decay product (RDP) concentrations and of the working level value corresponding to those concentrations. 1.2 Measurements made in accordance with this test method will produce RDP concentrations representative of closed-building conditions. Results of measurements made under closed-building conditions will have a smaller variability and are more reproducible than measurements obtained when building conditions are not controlled. This test method may be utilized under non-controlled conditions, but a greater degree of variability in the results will occur. Variability in the results may also be an indication of temporal variability present at the sampling site. 1.3 This test method utilizes a short sampling period and the results are indicative of the conditions only at the place and time of sampling. The results obtained by this test method are not necessarily indicative of longer terms of sampling and should not be confused with such results. The averaging of multiple measurements over hours and days can, however, provide useful screening information. Individual measurements are generally obtained for diagnostic purposes. 1.4 The range of the test method may be considered from 0.0005 WL to unlimited working levels (WL), and from 40 Bq/m 3 to unlimited for each individual randon decay product. 1.5 This test method provides information on equipment, procedures, and quality control. It provides for measurements within typical residential or building environments and may not necessarily apply to specialized circumstances, for example, clean rooms. 1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See Section 9 for additional precautions .


ASTM D5072-09(2016)

Standard Test Method for Radon in Drinking Water

1.1 This test method covers the measurement of radon in drinking water in concentrations above 2 Bq/L. 1.2 This test method may be used for absolute measurements by calibrating with a 226 Ra standard or for relative measurements by comparing the measurements made with each other. 1.3 This test method is used successfully with drinking water samples and Type III reagent water conforming to Specification D1193 . It is the user s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for waters of untested matrices. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM E1465-08a

Standard Practice for Radon Control Options for the Design and Construction of New Low-Rise Residential Buildings

1.1 This practice covers the design and construction of two radon control options for use in new low-rise residential buildings. These unobtrusive (built-in) soil depressurization options are installed with a pipe route appropriate for their intended initial mode of operation, that is, fan-powered or passive. One of these pipe routes should be installed during a residential building s initial construction. Specifications for the critical gas-permeable layer, the radon system s piping, and radon entry pathway reduction are comprehensive and common to both pipe routes. 1.1.1 The first option has a pipe route appropriate for a fan-powered radon reduction system. The radon fan should be installed after (1) an initial radon test result reveals unacceptable radon concentrations and therefore a need for an operating radon fan, or (2) the owner has specified an operating radon fan, as well as acceptable radon test results before occupancy. Fan operated soil depressurization radon systems reduce indoor radon concentrations up to 99 %. 1.1.2 The second option has a more efficient pipe route appropriate for passively operated radon reduction systems. Passively operated radon reduction systems provide radon reductions of up to 50 %. When the radon test results for a building with an operating passive system are not acceptable, that system should be converted to fan-powered operation. Radon systems with pipe routes installed for passive operation can be converted easily to fan-powered operation; such fan operated systems reduce indoor radon concentrations up to 99 %. 1.2 The options provide different benefits: 1.2.1 The option using the pipe route for fan-powered operation is intended for builders with customers who want maximum unobtrusive built-in radon reduction and documented evidence of an effective radon reduction system before a residential building is occupied. Radon systems with fan-powered type pipe routes allow the greatest architectural freedom for vent stack routing and fan location. 1.2.2 The option using the pipe route for passive operation is intended for builders and their customers who want unobtrusive built-in radon reduction with the lowest possible operating cost, and documented evidence of acceptable radon system performance before occupancy. If a passive system s radon reduction is unacceptable, its performance can be significantly increased by converting it to fan-powered operation. 1.3 Fan-powered, soil depressurization, radon-reduction techniques, such as those specified in this practice, have been used successfully for slab-on-grade, basement, and crawlspace foundations throughout the world. 1.4 Radon in air testing is used to assure the effectiveness of these soil depressurization radon systems. The U.S. national goal for indoor radon concentration, established by the U.S. Congress in the 1988 Indoor Radon Abatement Act, is to reduce indoor radon as close to the levels of outside air as is practicable. The radon concentration in outside air is assumed to be 0.4 picocuries per litre (pCi/l) (15 Becquerels per cubic metre (Bq/m 3 )); the U.S. s average radon concentration in indoor air is 1.3 pCi/L (50 Bq/m 3 ). The goal of this practice is to make available new residential buildings with indoor radon concentrations below 2.0 pCi/L (75 Bq/m 3 ) in occupiable spaces. 1.5 This practice is intended to assist owners, designers, builders, building officials and others who design, manage, and inspect radon systems and their construction for new low-rise residential buildings. 1.6 This practice can be used as a model set of practices, which can be adopted or modified by state and local jurisdictions, to fulfill objectives of their residential building codes and regulations. This practice also can be used as a reference for the federal, state, and local health officials and radiation protection agencies. 1.7 The new dwelling units covered by this practice have never been occupied. Radon reduction for existing low rise residential buildings is covered by Practice E 2121 , or by state and local building codes and radiation protection regulations. 1.8 Fan-powered soil depressurization, the principal strategy described in this practice, offers the most effective and most reliable radon reduction of all currently available strategies. Historically, far more fan-powered soil depressurization radon reduction systems have been successfully installed and operated than all other radon reduction methods combined. These methods are not the only methods for reducing indoor radon concentrations (1-3) . 1.9 Section 7 is Occupational Radon Exposure and Worker Safety . 1.10 Appendix X1 is Principles of Operation for Fan-Powered Soil Depressurization Radon Reduction . 1.11 Appendix X2 is a Summary of Practice E 1465 Requirements for Installation of Radon Reduction Systems in New Low Rise Residential Building . 1.12 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.13 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


IEC 61577-1 Ed. 2.0 b:2006

Radiation protection instrumentation - Radon and radon decay product measuring instruments - Part 1: General principles

Addresses the instruments and associated methods for measuring isotopes 220 and 222 of radon and their subsequent short-lived decay products in gases. Helps to define type tests which have to be conducted in order to qualify these instruments.


IEC 61577-2 Ed. 2.0 b:2014

Radiation protection instrumentation - Radon and radon decay product measuring instruments - Part 2: Specific requirements for 222Rn and 220Rn measuring instruments

IEC 61577-2:2014 describes the specific requirements for instruments measuring the activity concentration of airborne 222 Rn and 220 Rn outdoors, in dwellings and in workplaces including underground mines. This standard applies practically to all types of electronic measuring instruments that are based on either spot or continuous measurements. The different types of instrumentation used for measurements are stated in IEC 61577-1. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: - addition of new requirements and tests concerning performance; - harmonization of the requirements and tests concerning performance with other standards in this area.


IEC 61577-3 Ed. 2.0 b:2011

Radiation protection instrumentation - Radon and radon decay product measuring instruments - Part 3: Specific requirements for radon decay product measuring instruments

"IEC 61577-3:2011 describes the specific requirements for instruments measuring the volumetric activity of airborne short-lived radon decay products and/or their ambient potential alpha-energy concentration outdoors, in dwellings, and in workplaces including underground mines. This standard applies practically to all types of electronic instruments that are based on grab sampling, continuous sampling technique and electronic integrating measurement methods. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: - implementation of new requirements and tests concerning radiation detection performance; - implementation of new requirements and tests concerning environmental performance; - harmonization of the requirements and tests concerning electrical and mechanical performance with other standards in the area of radiation protection instrumentation."


IEC 61577-4 Ed. 1.0 b:2009

Radiation protection instrumentation - Radon and radon decay product measuring instruments - Part 4: Equipment for the production of reference atmospheres containing radon isotopes and their decay products (STAR)

"IEC 61577-4:2009 concerns the System for Test Atmospheres with Radon (STAR) needed for testing, in a reference atmosphere, the instruments measuring radon and RnDP. Provides guidance for those facing problems associated with the production of equipment for setting up reference atmospheres for radon and its decay products."



ISO 16641:2014

Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air - Radon 220: Integrated measurement methods for the determination of the average activity concentration using passive solid-state nuclear track detectors

ISO 16641:2014 covers integrated measurement techniques for radon-220 with passive sampling only. It provides information on measuring the average activity concentration of radon-220 in the air, based on easy-to-use and low-cost passive sampling, and the conditions of use for the measuring devices. ISO 16641:2014 covers samples taken without interruption over periods varying from a few months to one year.


ISO 13164-1:2013

Water quality - Radon-222 - Part 1: General principles

ISO 13164-1:2013 gives general guidelines for sampling, packaging, and transporting of all kinds of water samples, for the measurement of the activity concentration of radon-222. The test methods fall into two categories: a) direct measurement of the water sample without any transfer of phase (see ISO 13164 2); b) indirect measurement involving the transfer of the radon-222 from the aqueous phase to another phase (see ISO 13164 3). The test methods can be applied either in the laboratory or on site. The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the suitability of the test method for the water samples tested.


ISO 13164-2:2013

Water quality - Radon-222 - Part 2: Test method using gamma-ray spectrometry

ISO 13164-2:2013 specifies a test method for the determination of radon-222 activity concentration in a sample of water following the measurement of its short-lived decay products by direct gamma-spectrometry of the water sample. The radon-222 activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available gamma-ray instruments, range from a few becquerels per litre to several hundred thousand becquerels per litre for a 1 l test sample. This test method can be used successfully with drinking water samples. The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the validity of this test method for water samples of untested matrices. An annex gives indications on the necessary counting conditions to meet the required sensitivity for drinking water monitoring.


ISO 13164-3:2013

Water quality - Radon-222 - Part 3: Test method using emanometry

ISO 13164-3:2013 specifies a test method for the determination of radon-222 activity concentration in a sample of water following its transfer from the aqueous phase to the air phase by degassing and its detection. It gives recommendations for rapid measurements performed within less than 1 h. The radon-222 activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available instruments, range from 0,1 Bq l 1 to several hundred thousand becquerels per litre for a 100 ml test sample. This test method is used successfully with drinking water samples. The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the validity of this test method for water samples of untested matrices. This test method can be applied on field sites or in the laboratory. Annexes A and B give indications on the necessary counting conditions to meet the required sensitivity for drinking water monitoring


ISO 13164-4:2015

Water quality - Radon-222 - Part 4: Test method using two-phase liquid scintillation counting

ISO 13164-4:2015 describes a test method for the determination of radon-222 ( 222 Rn) activity concentration in non-saline waters by extraction and liquid scintillation counting. The radon-222 activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available instruments, are at least above 0,5 Bq l 1 for a 10 ml test sample and a measuring time of 1 h. This test method can be used successfully with drinking water samples and it is the responsibility of the laboratory to ensure the validity of this test method for water samples of untested matrices. Annex A gives indication on the necessary counting conditions to meet the required detection limits for drinking water monitoring.



ISO 11665-2:2012

Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air: radon-222 - Part 2: Integrated measurement method for determining average potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products

ISO 11665-2:2012 describes integrated measurement methods for short-lived radon-222 decay products. It gives indications for measuring the average potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon-222 decay products in the air and the conditions of use for the measuring devices. ISO 11665-2:2012 covers samples taken over periods varying from a few weeks to one year. ISO 11665-2:2012 is not applicable to systems with a maximum sampling duration of less than one week.



ISO 11665-4:2012

Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air: radon-222 - Part 4: Integrated measurement method for determining average activity concentration using passive sampling and delayed analysis

ISO 11665-4:2012 describes radon-222 integrated measurement techniques with passive sampling. It gives indications for determining the average activity concentration of the radon-222 in the air from measurements based on easy-to-use and low-cost passive sampling, and the conditions of use for the sensors. ISO 11665-4:2012 covers samples taken without interruption over periods varying from a few days to one year.


ISO 11665-5:2012

Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air: radon-222 - Part 5: Continuous measurement method of the activity concentration

ISO 11665-5:2012 describes continuous measurement methods for radon-222. It gives indications for continuous measuring of the temporal variations of radon activity concentration in open or confined atmospheres. ISO 11665-5:2012 is intended for assessing temporal changes in radon activity concentration in the environment, in public buildings, in homes and in work places, as a function of influence quantities such as ventilation and/or meteorological conditions.


ISO 11665-6:2012

Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air: radon-222 - Part 6: Spot measurement method of the activity concentration

ISO 11665-6:2012 describes radon-222 spot measurement methods. It gives indications for carrying out spot measurements, at the scale of a few minutes at a given place, of the radon activity concentration in open and confined atmospheres.


ISO 11665-7:2012

Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air: radon-222 - Part 7: Accumulation method for estimating surface exhalation rate

ISO 11665-7:2012 gives guidelines for estimating the radon-222 surface exhalation rate over a short period (a few hours), at a given place, at the interface of the medium (soil, rock, laid building material, walls, etc.) and the atmosphere. This estimation is based on measuring the radon activity concentration emanating from the surface under investigation and accumulated in a container of a known volume for a known duration. This method is estimative only, as it is difficult to quantify the influence of many parameters in environmental conditions. ISO 11665-7:2012 is particularly applicable, however, in case of an investigation, a search for sources or a comparative study of exhalation rates at the same site. ISO 11665-7:2012 does not cover calibration conditions for the rate estimation devices.


ISO 11665-8:2012

Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air: radon-222 - Part 8: Methodologies for initial and additional investigations in buildings

ISO 11665-8:2012 specifies requirements for the determination of the activity concentration of radon in all types of buildings. The buildings can be single family houses, public buildings, industrial buildings, underground buildings, etc. ISO 11665-8:2012 describes the measurement methods used to assess, during the initial investigation phase, the average annual activity concentration of radon in buildings. It also deals with investigations needed to identify the source, entry routes and transfer pathways of the radon in the building (additional investigations). Finally, ISO 11665-8:2012 outlines the applicable requirements for the immediate post-mitigation testing of the implemented mitigation techniques, monitoring of their effectiveness and testing of the sustainability of the building's behaviour towards radon. ISO 11665-8:2012 does not address the technical building diagnostic or the prescription of mitigation work.


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