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Wind Turbine Standards

Wind turbine standards address design requirements and considerations, as well as covering associated components, systems, and technologies that have an impact on the reliable functioning of wind turbines. With the extensive IEC 61400 series covering topics as far ranging as full-scale structural testing and acoustic noise measurement, as well as a 6-part information model for communications for monitoring and control of wind power plants, the standardization of wind turbines is then further complemented by efforts from ISO, ANSI, and other national standards bodies. Together, these standards help keep design and production reliable and conducive to the long-lasting use of wind turbines so that they may remain dependably in service for the length of their planned lifetime and realize both their environmental and economic benefits.

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IEC 61400-SER Ed. 1.0 b:2015

Wind turbine generator systems - ALL PARTS

This pack contains the following: IEC 61400-1 ed3.0 IEC 61400-1 amd1 ed3.0 IEC 61400-2 ed3.0 IEC 61400-3 ed1.0 IEC 61400-4 ed1.0 IEC 61400-11 ed3.0 IEC 61400-12-1 ed1.0 IEC 61400-12-2 ed1.0 IEC/TS 61400-13 ed1.0 IEC/TS 61400-14 ed1.0 IEC 61400-21 ed2.0 IEC 61400-22 ed1.0 IEC 61400-23 ed1.0 IEC 61400-24 ed1.0 IEC 61400-25-1 ed1.0 IEC 61400-25-2 ed1.0 IEC 61400-25-3 ed1.0 IEC 61400-25-4 ed1.0 IEC 61400-25-5 ed1.0 IEC 61400-25-6 ed1.0 IEC/TS 61400-26-1 ed1.0 IEC/TS 61400-26-2 ed1.0 IEC 61400-27-1 ed1.0

ISO 12494:2017

Atmospheric icing of structures

ISO 12494:2017 describes the general principles of determining ice load on structures of the types listed in this clause. In cases where a certain structure is not directly covered by this or another standard or recommendation, designers can use the intentions of this document. However, it is the user's responsibility to carefully consider the applicability of this document to the structure in question. The practical use of all data in this document is based upon certain knowledge of the site of the structure. Information about the degree of normal icing amounts (= ice classes) for the site in question is used. For many areas, however, no information is available. Even in such cases, this document can be useful because local meteorologists or other experienced persons should be able to, on the safe side, estimate a proper ice class. Using such an estimate in the structural design will result in a much safer structure than designing without any considerations for problems due to ice. CAUTION It is extremely important to design for some ice instead of no ice, and then the question of whether the amount of ice was correct is of less importance. In particular, the action of wind can be increased considerably due to both increased exposed area and increased drag coefficient. ISO 12494:2017 is intended for use in determining ice mass and wind load on the iced structure for the following types of structure: - masts; - towers; - antennas and antenna structures; - cables, stays, guy ropes, etc.; - rope ways (cable railways); - structures for ski-lifts; - buildings or parts of them exposed to potential icing; - towers for special types of construction such as transmission lines, wind turbines, etc. Atmospheric icing on electrical overhead lines is covered by IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) standards. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 2394. NOTE Some typical types of structure are mentioned, but other types can also be considered by designers by thinking in terms of which type of structure is sensitive to unforeseen ice, and act thereafter. Also, in many cases, only parts of structures are to be designed for ice loads because they are more vulnerable to unforeseen ice than is the whole structure. Even if electrical overhead lines are covered by IEC standards, designers can use this document for the mast structures to overhead lines (which are not covered by IEC standards) if they so wish.

IEC 60076-16 Ed. 1.0 b:2011

Power transformers - Part 16: Transformers for wind turbine applications

"IEC 60076-16:2011 applies to dry-type and liquid-immersed transformers for rated power 100 kVA up to 10 000 kVA for wind turbine applications having a winding with highest voltage for equipment up to and including 36 kV and at least one winding operating at a voltage greater than 1,1 kV."

ISO 12925-1:2018

Lubricants, industrial oils and related products (class L) - Family C (gears) - Part 1: Specifications for lubricants for enclosed gear systems

ISO 12925-1:2018 establishes the specifications relative to family C (gears) for lubricants, industrial oils and related products of Class L (see ISO 6743 6). This document deals only with lubricants for enclosed gear systems. Lubricants for open gears and greases for gears (enclosed or open) are not covered. ISO 12925-1:2018 can be read in conjunction with ISO 6743 6. The following categories specified in ISO 6743 6 are covered by this document: CKB, CKC, CKD, CKE, CKSMP, CKTG, CKES, CKPG, CKPR.

BS EN 50308:2004

Wind turbines. Protective measures. Requirements for design, operation and maintenance (British Standard)

This European Standard specifies requirements for protective measures relating to the health and safety of personnel, relevant to commissioning, operation and maintenance of wind turbines.It does not describe instructions and provisions for safe working during manufacture, transport, assembly and installation of the wind turbine.Requirements are specified regarding-- hardware provisions being a part of the turbine such as platforms, ladders, lighting,-- manuals and warning signs to accommodate safe and quick operation, inspection and maintenance.The requirements and/or measures specified account for the hazards-- of mechanical origin such as falling, slipping, locking in,-- of thermal origin (fire) such as burns by flames or explosions,-- of electricity such as contact with live parts,-- generated by noise such as stress and loss of hearing,-- generated by neglecting ergonomic principles in machine design such as unhealthy postures or human errors.This standard is prepared for horizontal axis, grid connected wind turbines. For other concepts (e.g. vertical axis turbines) the principles are still valid, but the specific rules or requirements have to be adjusted to the actual concept.Additional provisions and procedures are necessary for turbines installed in water or offshore. The present document only draws attention to these.Provisions and procedures for lifts and Suspended Access Equipment (SAE) in the turbine tower are not included in this standard.This standard is not applicable to wind turbines manufactured before the date of its publication by CENELEC.

BS EN 12843:2004

Precast concrete products. Masts and poles (British Standard)

This Standard specifies requirements for precast concrete poles (also commonly called masts) (either all of a piece or composed of elements), reinforced and/or prestressed as structural elements; they may be hollow or solid and may receive or include additional components (e.g. cross-arms, platforms etc.), inserts and connectors. Additional elements may be connected to pole elements. Structures made from such elements in mono- or multi-legged form may be used for : - overhead electrical lines ; - telecommunication lines ; - overhead electrical lines for railways, trams and similar ; - supports for lighting ; - supports for loudspeaker installation ; - antenna and telecommunication poles ; - supports for wind turbines ; - and similar installations. This Standard does not cover lighting columns for use in traffic circulation areas.

IEC 61400-1 Ed. 3.0 b:2005

Wind turbines - Part 1: Design requirements

"Specifies essential design requirements to ensure the engineering integrity of wind turbines. Provides an appropriate level of protection against damage from all hazards during the planned lifetime. Is concerned with all subsystems of wind turbines such as control and protection mechanisms, internal electrical systems, mechanical systems and support structures. Applies to wind turbines of all sizes. See IEC 61400-2 for small wind turbines."

IEC 61400-2 Ed. 3.0 b:2013

Wind turbines Part 2 Small wind turbines

IEC 61400 2 2013 deals with safety philosophy quality assurance and engineering integrity and specifies requirements for the safety of small wind turbines SWTs including design installation maintenance and operation under specified external conditions It provides the appropriate level of protection against damage from hazards from these systems during their planned lifetime This standard is concerned with all subsystems of SWTs such as protection mechanisms internal electrical systems mechanical systems support structures foundations and the electrical interconnection with the load While this standard is similar to IEC 61400 1 it does simplify and make significant changes in order to be applicable to small wind turbines The main changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows br the title has been modified to better reflect the scope br restructured into a part Design evaluation and a part Type testing to harmonise use with IEC 61400 22 conformity testing and certification br caution provided regarding the use of simplified equations br added various annexes wind conditions tropical storms extreme environmental conditions EMC testing dynamic behavior etc

IEC 61400-3 Ed. 1.0 b:2009

Wind turbines - Part 3: Design requirements for offshore wind turbines

"IEC 61400-3:2009 specifies additional requirements for assessment of the external conditions at an offshore wind turbine site and specifies essential design requirements to ensure the engineering integrity of offshore wind turbines. Its purpose is to provide an appropriate level of protection against damage from all hazards during the planned lifetime. Focuses on the engineering integrity of the structural components of an offshore wind turbine but is also concerned with subsystems such as control and protection mechanisms, internal electrical systems and mechanical systems. It should be used together with the appropriate IEC and ISO standards, in particular with IEC 61400-1."

IEC 61400-4 Ed. 1.0 en:2012

Wind turbines - Part 4: Design requirements for wind turbine gearboxes

IEC 61400-4:2012(E) is applicable to enclosed speed increasing gearboxes for horizontal axis wind turbine drivetrains with a power rating in excess of 500 kW. This standard applies to wind turbines installed onshore or offshore. It provides guidance on the analysis of the wind turbine loads in relation to the design of the gear and gearbox elements. The gearing elements covered by this standard include such gears as spur, helical or double helical and their combinations in parallel and epicyclic arrangements in the main power path. The standard is based on gearbox designs using rolling element bearings. Also included is guidance on the engineering of shafts, shaft hub interfaces, bearings and the gear case structure in the development of a fully integrated design that meets the rigours of the operating conditions. Lubrication of the transmission is covered along with prototype and production testing. Finally, guidance is provided on the operation and maintenance of the gearbox.

IEC 61400-11 Ed. 3.0 en:2012

Wind turbines - Part 11: Acoustic noise measurement techniques

IEC 61400-11:2012(E) presents measurement procedures that enable noise emissions of a wind turbine to be characterised. This involves using measurement methods appropriate to noise emission assessment at locations close to the machine, in order to avoid errors due to sound propagation, but far away enough to allow for the finite source size. The procedures described are different in some respects from those that would be adopted for noise assessment in community noise studies. They are intended to facilitate characterisation of wind turbine noise with respect to a range of wind speeds and directions. Standardisation of measurement procedures will also facilitate comparisons between different wind turbines. This new edition constitutes a technical revision, introducing new principles for data reduction procedures.

IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 2.0 b:2017

Wind energy generation systems - Part 12-1: Power performance measurements of electricity producing wind turbines

IEC 61400-12-1:2017 specifies a procedure for measuring the power performance characteristics of a single wind turbine and applies to the testing of wind turbines of all types and sizes connected to the electrical power network. In addition, this standard describes a procedure to be used to determine the power performance characteristics of small wind turbines (as defined in IEC 61400-2) when connected to either the electric power network or a battery bank. The procedure can be used for performance evaluation of specific wind turbines at specific locations, but equally the methodology can be used to make generic comparisons between different wind turbine models or different wind turbine settings when site-specific conditions and data filtering influences are taken into account. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: new definition of wind speed, inclusion of wind shear and wind veer, revision of air density correction, revision of site calibration, revision to definition of power curve, interpolation to bin centre method, revision of obstacle model, etc. Key words: Wind turbines, Wind energy, renewable energy, performance, efficiency

IEC 61400-13 Ed. 1.0 b:2015

Wind turbines - Part 13: Measurement of mechanical loads

IEC 61400-13:2015(B) describes the measurement of fundamental structural loads on wind turbines for the purpose of the load simulation model validation. The standard prescribes the requirements and recommendations for site selection, signal selection, data acquisition, calibration, data verification, measurement load cases, capture matrix, post-processing, uncertainty determination and reporting. Informative annexes are also provided to improve understanding of testing methods. This standard replaces IEC TS 61400-13 published in 2001; it constitutes a technical revision and transition from technical specification to International Standard.

IEC/TS 61400-14 Ed. 1.0 en:2005

Wind turbines - Part 14: Declaration of apparent sound power level and tonality values

Gives guidelines for declaring the apparent sound power level and tonality of a batch of wind turbines. Is to be used in conjunction with IEC 61400-11 which gives measurement procedures for apparent sound power level and tonality.

IEC 61400-21 Ed. 2.0 b:2008

Wind turbines - Part 21: Measurement and assessment of power quality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines

"IEC 61400-21:2008 covers the definition and specification of the quantities to be determined for characterizing the power quality of a grid connected wind turbine; measurement procedures for quantifying the characteristics; and procedures for assessing compliance with power quality requirements, including estimation of the power quality expected from the wind turbine type. The main changes with respect to the previous edition deal with interharmonics and current distortions (<9 kHz); response to voltage dips; active power ramp rate limitation and set-point control; reactive power capabilities and set-point control; grid protection and reconnection time after grid faults."

IEC 61400-22 Ed. 1.0 b:2010

Wind turbines - Part 22: Conformity testing and certification

"IEC 61400-22:2010 defines rules and procedures for a certification system for wind turbines (WT) that comprises both type certification and certification of wind turbine projects installed on land or off-shore. This system specifies rules for procedures and management for carrying out conformity evaluation of WT and wind farms, with respect to specific standards and other technical requirements, relating to safety, reliability, performance, testing and interaction with electrical power networks. "

IEC 61400-23 Ed. 1.0 en:2014

Wind turbines - Part 23: Full-scale structural testing of rotor blades

IEC 61400-23:2014(EN) defines the requirements for full-scale structural testing of wind turbine blades and for the interpretation and evaluation of achieved test results. The standard focuses on aspects of testing related to an evaluation of the integrity of the blade, for use by manufacturers and third party investigators. The following tests are considered in this standard: - static load tests; - fatigue tests; - static load tests after fatigue tests; - tests determining other blade properties. The purpose of the tests is to confirm to an acceptable level of probability that the whole population of a blade type fulfils the design assumptions.

IEC 61400-24 Ed. 1.0 en:2010

Wind turbines - Part 24: Lightning protection

"IEC 61400-24:2010(E) applies to lightning protection of wind turbine generators and wind power systems. Defines the lightning environment for wind turbines and application of the environment for risk assessment for the wind turbine. Defines requirements for protection of blades, other structural components and electrical and control systems against both direct and indirect effects of lightning. Recommends test methods to validate compliance. Provides guidance on the use of applicable lightning protection, industrial electrical and EMC standards including earthing. Provides guidance regarding personal safety. Makes normative references to generic standards for lightning protection, low-voltage systems and high-voltage systems for machinery and installations and EMC. "

IEC 61400-25-1 Ed. 2.0 b:2017

Wind energy generation systems - Part 25-1: Communications for monitoring and control of wind power plants - Overall description of principles and models

IECá61400-25-1:2017 gives an overall description of the principles and models used in the IECá61400¡25 series, which is designed for a communication environment supported by a client-server model. Three areas are defined, that are modelled separately to ensure the scalability of implementations: wind power plant information models, information exchange model, and mapping of these two models to a standard communication profile. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: general harmonization of text and overview models with the other parts of the IECá61400¡25 series, harmonization of definitions in other related standards.

IEC 61400-25-2 Ed. 2.0 b:2015

Wind turbines - Part 25-2: Communications for monitoring and control of wind power plants - Information models

IEC 61400-25-2:2015 specifies the information model of devices and functions related to wind power plant applications. In particular, it specifies the compatible logical node names, and data names for communication between wind power plant components. This includes the relationship between logical devices, logical nodes and data. The names defined in the IEC 61400-25 series are used to build the hierarchical object references applied for communicating with components in wind power plants. Main changes with respect to the previous edition consist of: - harmonization with newer editions of IEC 61850 standards; - reduction of overlap between standards and simplification by increased referencing, - extension of data objects for operation of smart grids, - extended and enhanced semantics for existing data objects, etc.

IEC 61400-25-3 Ed. 2.0 b:2015

Wind turbines - Part 25-3: Communications for monitoring and control of wind power plants - Information exchange models

IEC 61400-25-3:2015 specifies an abstract communication service interface describing the information exchange between a client and a server for: - data access and retrieval, - device control, - event reporting and logging, - self-description of devices (device data dictionary), - data typing and discovery of data types. Main changes with respect to the previous edition consist of: - harmonization with newer editions of IEC 61850 standards; - reduction of overlap between standards and simplification by increased referencing, etc.

IEC 61400-25-4 Ed. 2.0 b:2016

Wind energy generation systems - Part 25-4: Communications for monitoring and control of wind power plants - Mapping to communication profile

IEC 61400-25-4:2016 specifies the specific mappings to protocol stacks encoding the messages required for the information exchange between a client and a remote server for: data access and retrieval, device control, event reporting and logging, publisher/subscriber, self-description of devices (device data dictionary), data typing and discovery of data types. The mappings specified in this part of IEC 61400-25 comprise: - a mapping to SOAP-based web services, - a mapping to OPC/XML-DA, - a mapping to IEC 61850-8-1 MMS, - a mapping to IEC 60870-5-104, - a mapping to DNP3. The main technical changes with regard to the previous edition are as follows: - general harmonization with information models in IEC 61400-25-2 and information exchange services in IEC 61400-25-3; - reduction of overlap between standards and simplification by increased referencing.

IEC 61400-25-5 Ed. 2.0 en:2017

Wind energy generation systems - Part 25-5: Communications for monitoring and control of wind power plants - Compliance testing

IECá61400-25-5:2017 specifies standard techniques for testing of compliance of implementations, as well as specific measurement techniques to be applied when declaring performance parameters. The use of these techniques will enhance the ability of users to purchase systems that integrate easily, operate correctly, and support the applications as intended. This part of IECá61400-25 defines: the methods and abstract test cases for compliance testing of server and client devices used in wind power plants; the metrics to be measured in said devices according to the communication requirements specified in IECá61400-25 (all parts). This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: - harmonization with structure and test cases in IECá61850-10:2012; - reduction of overlap between standards and simplification by increased referencing to the IECá61850 standard series.

IEC 61400-25-6 Ed. 2.0 en:2016

Wind energy generation systems - Part 25-6: Communications for monitoring and control of wind power plants - Logical node classes and data classes for condition monitoring

IEC 61400-25-6:2016(E) specifies the information models related to condition monitoring for wind power plants and the information exchange of data values related to these models. This standard is to be used with other standards of the IEC 61400-25 series. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: - major restructuring of the data model to accommodate flexibility; removal of UFF58 format; - access to data using the standard reporting and logging functions; - recommendations for creating data names to accommodate flexibility.

IEC/TS 61400-26-1 Ed. 1.0 en:2011

Wind turbines - Part 26-1: Time-based availability for wind turbine generating systems

IEC 61400-26-1:2011(E) defines generic information categories to which fractions of time can be assigned for a wind turbine generating system (WTGS) considering internal and external conditions based on fraction of time and specifying the following: - generic information categories of a WTGS considering availability and other performance indicators; - information category priority in order to discriminate between concurrent categories; - entry and exit point for each information category in order to allocate designation of time; - informative annexes providing various examples.

CSA PLUS 61400-2012

PLUS 61400-12 - CSA guide to Canadian wind turbine codes and standards

Preface This is the second edition of PLUS 61400, CSA Guide to Canadian wind turbine codes and standards. It supersedes the preliminary edition published in 2008 under the same title but without the designation. Changes in this edition include restructuring of topics into four main categories and content revision to match the current state of requirements within Canada. Scope This Guide provides general information on codes and standards pertaining to the approval, design, installation, operation, and maintenance of wind turbines for use in Canada. Some of the information presented might appear redundant or obvious to a Canadian user; however, CSA Group receives questions from all over the world about these subjects and therefore some basic information about Canadian regulatory systems has also been included to serve these users. To maintain relevance, the intent of this Guide will be updated and reissued as required and as resources permit to reflect timely information on the state of standards, codes, and related subject matter pertaining to wind turbines. CSA Group encourages all users of this Guide to contribute to this effort. Notes: (1) Some items or documents referenced within this Guide are not codes or standards, but are included to allow the user to understand other requirements that might be part of a wind power project within Canada. (2) This publication is a guide only and not an all-encompassing document. The user might require further information to complete their specific requirements.


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