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Human System Interaction Ergonomics Standards

Human System Interaction Ergonomics Standards provide design principles and a framework for applying those principles to analysis, design and evaluation of human computer interface systems. This selection of standards for human system interaction ergonomics applies to the following types of users: user interface designers, developers, evaluators and buyers.

These standards relate to human-centered design of software web user interfaces with the aim of increasing usability; issues associated with the design of equipment and services for people with a wide range of sensory, physical and cognitive abilities, including those who are temporarily disabled, and the elderly; ergonomic factors for the design of input devices; and considerations of how both hardware and software components of interactive systems can enhance human - system interaction.

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ANSI/HFES 100-2007

Human Factors Engineering of Computer Workstations

This standard covers operator-machine interface issues associated with computer workstations used regularly in offices (i.e., intentionally built indoor office workplaces) for text-, data-, and simple graphics-processing tasks. This standard applies to computer workstations for a wide range of users; in general the physical dimensions and force requirements are designed to accommodate at least 90 percent of the North American population.


ANSI/HFES 200-2008

Human Factors Engineering of Software User Interfaces

The objective of HFES 200 is to provide design requirements and recommendations that will increase the accessibility, learnability, and ease of use of software. The ultimate beneficiaries are the end users of software, whose needs motivated the design recommendations in HFES 200. The application of this standard is intended to provide user interfaces that are more usable, accessible, and consistent and that enable greater productivity and satisfaction. Human Factors Engineering of Software User Interfaces consists of five parts: HFES 200.1: Introduction; HFES 200.2: Accessibility; HFES 200.3: Interaction Techniques; HFES 200.4: Interactive Voice Response; HFES 200.5: Visual Presentation and Use of Color.


ISO 9241-220:2019

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 220: Processes for enabling, executing and assessing human-centred design within organizations

This document describes the processes and specifies the outcomes by which human-centred design (HCD) is carried out within organizations. Human-centred design aims to meet requirements for human-centred quality (see Annex E) throughout the life cycle of interactive systems. The processes are described from the viewpoint of those responsible for the analysis, design and evaluation of the human use of interactive systems. The process descriptions include the purpose, benefits, outcomes, typical activities and work products for each process, and are for use in the specification, implementation, assessment and improvement of the activities used for human-centred design and operation in any type of system life cycle. They can also provide the basis for professional development and certification. The processes are associated with the domains of ergonomics/human factors, human?computer interaction, usability and user experience. This document does not include specific methods for human-centred design, nor does it describe processes for organizational redesign. The scope of this document does not include other aspects of ergonomics, which include the design of organizations as well as systems for human use, and which extend beyond the domain of design; for example in the forensic analysis of the causes of accidents and in the generation of data and methods of measurement. NOTE 1 ISO/TS 18152 is a related standard with a broader scope than this document. It includes the organizational processes for the identification and handling of issues related to both users and other stakeholders. The intended application of this document is computer-based interactive systems. While the processes apply to interactive systems that deliver services, they do not cover the design of those services. The relevant aspects of the processes can also be applied to simple or non-computer?based interactive systems. NOTE 2 Human-centred design concentrates on the human-centred aspects of design and not on other aspects of design such as mechanical construction, programming or the basic design of services. The process descriptions in this document provide the basis for a rigorous assessment of an enterprise's capability to carry out human-centred processes in compliance with the ISO/IEC 33000 family of standards. This document is intended for use by organizations that want to address and improve their treatment of human-centred design of either their internal systems or the products and services they provide, and the procurement of systems and parts of systems. The processes can be applied by small- and medium-sized enterprises as well as by large organizations. Copyright release for the process descriptions Users of this document may freely reproduce the process descriptions contained in Clause 9 as part of any process assessment model, or as part of any demonstration of compatibility with this document, so that it can be used for its intended purpose.



ISO 9241-20:2008

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 20: Accessibility guidelines for information/communication technology (ICT) equipment and services

ISO 9241-20:2008 is intended for use by those responsible for planning, designing, developing, acquiring, and evaluating information/communication technology (ICT) equipment and services. It provides guidelines for improving the accessibility of ICT equipment and services such that they will have wider accessibility for use at work, in the home, and in mobile and public environments. It covers issues associated with the design of equipment and services for people with a wide range of sensory, physical and cognitive abilities, including those who are temporarily disabled, and the elderly.


ISO/TR 9241-100:2010

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 100: Introduction to standards related to software ergonomics

ISO 9241-100:2010 enables users of standards related to software ergonomics to identify ergonomics standards particularly relevant to software development, gain an overview on the content of software-ergonomics standards, understand the role of software-ergonomics standards in specifying user requirements as well as designing and evaluating user interfaces and understand the relationship between the various standards. The software-ergonomics standards are applicable to all those software components of an interactive system affecting usability, including application software (including web-based applications), operating systems, embedded software, software development tools and assistive technologies.


ISO 9241-110:2020

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 110: Interaction principles

This document describes principles for interaction between a user and a system that are formulated in general terms (i.e. independent of situations of use, application, environment or technology). This document provides a framework for applying those interaction principles and the general design recommendations for interactive systems. While this document is applicable to all types of interactive systems, it does not cover the specifics of every application domain (e.g. safety critical systems, collaborative work, artificial intelligence features). It is intended for the following audiences: analysts of requirements (including market requirements, user requirements, and system requirements); designers of user interface development tools and style guides to be used by user interface designers and developers; designers of user interfaces who will apply the guidance during the design activities (either directly, based on training, or by using tools and style guides which incorporate the guidance); developers who will apply the guidance during the development process; evaluators who are responsible for ensuring that products meet the general design recommendations contained in this document; buyers who will reference this document in contracts during product procurement. This document focuses on interaction principles related to the design of interactions between user and interactive system. ISO 9241-112 provides further guidance on the presentation of information. This document does not consider any other aspect of design such as marketing, aesthetics and corporate identity.


ISO 9241-154:2013

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 154: Interactive voice response (IVR) applications

ISO 9241-154:2013 gives guidance on, and requirements for, the user interface design of interactive voice response (IVR) applications. It covers both IVR systems that employ touchtone input and those using automated speech recognition (ASR) as the input mechanism. It is equally applicable to cases in which the caller or the IVR system itself (e.g. in some telemarketing applications) initiates the call. It is intended to be used together with ISO/IEC 13714.


ISO 9241-171:2008

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 171: Guidance on software accessibility

ISO 9241-171:2008 provides ergonomics guidance and specifications for the design of accessible software for use at work, in the home, in education and in public places. It covers issues associated with designing accessible software for people with the widest range of physical, sensory and cognitive abilities, including those who are temporarily disabled, and the elderly. It addresses software considerations for accessibility that complement general design for usability as addressed by ISO 9241-110, ISO 9241-11 to ISO 9241-17, ISO 14915 and ISO 13407. ISO 9241-171:2008 is applicable to the accessibility of interactive systems. It addresses a wide range of software (e.g. office, Web, learning support and library systems). It promotes the increased usability of systems for a wider range of users. While it does not cover the behaviour of, or requirements for, assistive technologies (including assistive software), it does address the use of assistive technologies as an integrated component of interactive systems. It is intended for use by those responsible for the specification, design, development, evaluation and procurement of software platforms and software applications.


ISO 9241-210:2019

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 210: Human-centred design for interactive systems

This document provides requirements and recommendations for human-centred design principles and activities throughout the life cycle of computer-based interactive systems. It is intended to be used by those managing design processes, and is concerned with ways in which both hardware and software components of interactive systems can enhance human?system interaction. NOTE Computer-based interactive systems vary in scale and complexity. Examples include off-the-shelf (shrink-wrap) software products, custom office systems, process control systems, automated banking systems, Web sites and applications, and consumer products such as vending machines, mobile phones and digital television. Throughout this document, such systems are generally referred to as products, systems or services although, for simplicity, sometimes only one term is used. This document provides an overview of human-centred design activities. It does not provide detailed coverage of the methods and techniques required for human-centred design, nor does it address health or safety aspects in detail. Although it addresses the planning and management of human-centred design, it does not address all aspects of project management. The information in this document is intended for use by those responsible for planning and managing projects that design and develop interactive systems. It therefore addresses technical human factors and ergonomics issues only to the extent necessary to allow such individuals to understand their relevance and importance in the design process as a whole. It also provides a framework for human factors and usability professionals involved in human-centred design. Detailed human factors/ergonomics, usability and accessibility issues are dealt with more fully in a number of standards including other parts of ISO 9241 (see Annex A) and ISO 6385, which sets out the broad principles of ergonomics. The requirements and recommendations in this document can benefit all parties involved in human-centred design and development. Annex B provides a checklist that can be used to support claims of conformance with this document.


ISO 9241-300:2008

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 300: Introduction to electronic visual display requirements

ISO 9241-300:2008 provides an introduction to the other parts in the ISO 9241 300 subseries, and explains its modular structure. The ISO 9241 300 subseries establishes requirements for the ergonomic design of electronic visual displays. These requirements are stated as performance specifications, aimed at ensuring effective and comfortable viewing conditions for users with normal or adjusted to normal eyesight. Test methods and metrology, yielding conformance measurements and criteria, are provided for design evaluation. The ISO 9241 300 subseries is applicable to the visual ergonomics design of electronic visual displays for a diversity of tasks in a wide variety of work environments.


ISO 9241-302:2008

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 302: Terminology for electronic visual displays

ISO 9241-302:2008 provides a comprehensive terminology for electronic visual displays and explains the terms and definitions used in the other parts of ISO 9241.


ISO 9241-303:2011

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 303: Requirements for electronic visual displays

ISO 9241-303:2011 establishes image-quality requirements, as well as providing guidelines, for electronic visual displays. These are given in the form of generic (independent of technology, task and environment) performance specifications and recommendations that will ensure effective and comfortable viewing conditions for users with normal or adjusted-to-normal eyesight.


ISO 9241-304:2008

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 304: User performance test methods for electronic visual displays

ISO 9241-304:2008 provides guidance for assessing the visual ergonomics of display technologies with user performance test methods (as opposed to the optical test methods given in ISO 9241-305). Its use will help to ensure that, for a given context of use, a display meets minimum visual ergonomics requirements. It covers only visual attributes and does not address the ergonomics or usability of the whole product that houses a visual display. The main users of ISO 9241-304:2008 will be those who procure displays or who need to measure display performance during product development. Its application assumes a background in behavioural science.


ISO 9241-305:2008

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 305: Optical laboratory test methods for electronic visual displays

ISO 9241-305:2008 establishes optical test and expert observation methods for use in predicting the performance of a display vis-a-vis the ergonomics requirements given in ISO 9241-303.


ISO 9241-306:2018

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 306: Field assessment methods for electronic visual displays

This document establishes optical, geometrical and visual inspection methods for the assessment of a display in various contexts of use according to ISO 9241 303.


ISO 9241-307:2008

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 307: Analysis and compliance test methods for electronic visual displays

ISO 9241-307:2008 establishes test methods for the analysis of a variety of visual display technologies, tasks and environments. It uses the measurement procedures of ISO 9241-305 and the generic requirements of ISO 9241-303 to define compliance routes suitable for the different technologies and intended contexts.




ISO/TR 9241-310:2010

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 310: Visibility, aesthetics and ergonomics of pixel defects

ISO/TR 9241-310:2010 provides a summary of existing knowledge on ergonomics requirements for pixel defects in electronic displays at the time of its publication. It also gives guidance on the specification of pixel defects, visibility thresholds and aesthetic requirements for pixel defects. It does not itself give requirements related to pixel defects, but it is envisaged that its information could be used in the revision of other parts in the ISO 9241 series.


ISO/TR 9241-331:2012

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 331: Optical characteristics of autostereoscopic displays

ISO/TR 9241-331:2012 establishes an ergonomic point of view for the optical properties of autostereoscopic displays (ASDs), with the aim of reducing visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic images on those displays. It gives terminology, performance characteristics and optical measurement methods for ASDs. It is applicable to spatially interlaced autostereoscopic displays (two-view, multi-view and integral displays) of the transmissive and emissive types. These can be implemented by flat-panel displays, projection displays, etc.


ISO 9241-400:2007

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 400: Principles and requirements for physical input devices

ISO 9241-400:2006 gives guidelines for physical input devices for interactive systems. It provides guidance based on ergonomic factors for the following input devices: keyboards, mice, pucks, joysticks, trackballs, trackpads, tablets and overlays, touch sensitive screens, styli, light pens, voice controlled devices, and gesture controlled devices. It defines and formulates ergonomic principles valid for the design and use of input devices. These principles are to be used to generate recommendations for the design of products and for their use. It also defines relevant terms for the entire 400 series of ISO 9241. For some applications, e.g. in areas where safety is the major concern, other additional principles may apply and take precedence over the guidance given here. ISO 9241-400:2006 also determines properties of input devices relevant for usability including functional, electrical, mechanical, maintainability and safety related properties. Additionally included are aspects of interdependency with the use environment and software.


ISO 9241-410:2008

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 410: Design criteria for physical input devices

ISO 9241-410:2008 specifies criteria based on ergonomics factors for the design of physical input devices for interactive systems including keyboards, mice, pucks, joysticks, trackballs, trackpads, tablets and overlays, touch sensitive screens, styli and light pens, and voice- and gesture controlled devices. It gives guidance on the design of these devices, taking into consideration the capabilities and limitations of users, and specifies generic design criteria for physical input devices, as well as specific criteria for each type of device. Requirements for the design of products are given either as a result of context-free considerations, or else can be determined based on the specified design criteria for the intended use; such specified criteria generally having been subdivided into task oriented categories, wherever applicable. ISO 9241-410:2008 does not specify the categories that are appropriate for devices as, according to the concept of usability, a product has no inherent usability. Selecting the category to which a certain property of a device belongs is subject to the design of a product. ISO 9241-410:2008 is expected to be used by the manufacturers of physical input devices, including product designers and test organizations, in determining the design characteristics of a device for its intended context of use (user population, task, software or environment, etc.). The data generated by the users of ISO 9241-410:2007 for the description of the properties of their products can be applied in the selection of a device adequate for the actual context of use on the basis of the task primitives relevant for the task of the specific user population, and for achieving the required level of efficiency and effectiveness for a given system.



ISO 9241-420:2011

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 420: Selection of physical input devices

ISO 9241-420:2011 provides guidance for the selection of input devices for interactive systems, based on ergonomic factors, considering the limitations and capabilities of users and the specific tasks and context of use. It describes methods for selecting a device or a combination of devices for the task at hand. It can also be used for evaluating the acceptability of trade-offs under the existing conditions. The target users of ISO 9241-420:2011 are user organizations and systems integrators who tailor systems for a given context of use. It is applicable to the following input devices: keyboards, mice, pucks, joysticks, trackballs, trackpads, tablets and overlays, touch-sensitive screens, styli and light pens. It does not specify design requirements or give recommendations for those devices.


ISO 9241-910:2011

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 910: Framework for tactile and haptic interaction

ISO 9241-910:2011 provides a framework for understanding and communicating various aspects of tactile/haptic interaction. It defines terms, describes structures and models, and gives explanations related to the other parts of the ISO 9241 900 subseries. It also provides guidance on how various forms of interaction can be applied to a variety of user tasks. It is applicable to all types of interactive systems making use of tactile/haptic devices and interactions. It does not address purely kinaesthetic interactions, such as gestures, although it might be useful for understanding such interactions.


ISO 9241-920:2009

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 920: Guidance on tactile and haptic interactions

ISO 9241-920:2009 gives recommendations for tactile and haptic hardware and software interactions. It provides guidance on the design and evaluation of hardware, software, and combinations of hardware and software interactions, including: the design/use of tactile/haptic inputs, outputs, and/or combinations of inputs and outputs, with general guidance on their design/use as well as on designing/using combinations of tactile and haptic interactions for use in combination with other modalities or as the exclusive mode of interaction; the tactile/haptic encoding of information, including textual data, graphical data and controls; the design of tactile/haptic objects, the layout of tactile/haptic space; interaction techniques. It does not provide recommendations specific to Braille, but can apply to interactions that make use of Braille. The recommendations given in ISO 9241-920:2009 are applicable to at least the controls of a virtual workspace, but they can also be applied to an entire virtual environment consistent, in as far as possible, with the simulation requirements. NOTE It is recognized that some interactive scenarios might be constrained by the limitation that a real workspace is to be modelled in a virtual environment. Objects can be in suboptimal positions or conditions for haptic interaction by virtue of the situation being modelled.


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