Abrasives

Abrasive particle testing standards are published by SAE, ASTM, IEC, and ISO. SAE J 965 covers abrasive wear. ASTM standards cover determination of high stress abrasion resistance of hard materials, attrition and abrasion of catalysts and catalyst carriers, abrasion resistance of concrete underwater testing, and determination of attrition of FCC catalysts by air jets. The IEC document covers guidelines for dealing with hydro-abrasive erosion in turbines for hydraulic machines. The ISO document covers anodizing aluminum and measuring abrasion resistance of oxidation coatings.

SAE J 965-2018

Abrasive Wear

An enormous economic loss, as well as a waste of natural resources, is incurred world-wide as a result of wear of components and tools. Any effort expended in an attempt to reduce this loss is indeed worthwhile. The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to present the current state of knowledge of abrasive wear. This report, therefore, covers wear, or the undesired removal of metal by mechanical action, caused by abrasive particles in contact with the surface. It does not concern metal-to-metal wear or wear in the presence of an abrasive free lubricant. Abrasive wear occurs when hard particles, such as rocks, sand, or fragments of certain hard metals, slide or roll under pressure across a surface. This action tends to cut grooves across the metal surface, much like a cutting tool. Abrasive wear is of considerable importance in any part moving in relation to an abrasive. Tools in contact with the ground, such as plows, cultivators, scraper and bulldozer blades, are intended to operate in abrasives. Machines for processing ores such as crushers and for grinding of natural minerals such as ball mills are also subjected to abrasive wear. Contact with abrasives by many other machinery components may not be a normal circumstance, but, since it may inadvertently occur, must be considered. Increased hardness usually increases wear resistance but also increases brittleness, which can cause fracture of the tool in rocky soils. Thus, the selection of a suitable material for use in a variety of abrasive conditions is necessarily a compromise between wear and brittle fracture resistance. This report presents present day information on the fundamentals, testing methods and specific solutions for abrasive wear problems. The limited information reflects the current lack of knowledge on this subject. However, it is a starting point. Further work is necessary to develop general design information.

ASTM B611-21

Standard Test Method for Determining the High Stress Abrasion Resistance of Hard Materials

1.1 This test method was developed for ranking the high-stress abrasion resistance of cemented carbides, but it has been successfully used on ceramics, cermets, and metal matrix hardfacings with a hardness over 55 Rockwell hardness, C scale (HRC). The feature of this test method that discriminates it from other abrasion tests is that the abrasive is forced against the test specimen with a steel wheel with sufficient force to cause fracture of the abrasive particles. Some abrasion tests use rubber wheels to force abrasive against test surfaces (Test Methods G65 and G105 ). A rubber wheel produces low-stress abrasion while a steel wheel produces high-stress abrasion. 1.2 In summary, this is a high-stress laboratory abrasion test for hard materials using a water slurry of aluminum oxide particles as the abrasive medium and a rotating steel wheel to force the abrasive across a flat test specimen in line contact with the rotating wheel immersed in the slurry. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. 1.3.1 Exceptions - Subsection 4.4 and Table 1 use abrasive grit designations for particle size. The value given in parentheses is nominal dimension in micrometers based on sieve designation (Specification E11 ) and provided for information only. Subsection 6.2 uses the Rockwell hardness, B scale (HRB) as the standard unit of measure for hardness. In 6.4 , 7.6 , 7.7 , and Table 1, rpm is the standard unit of measure for rotational speed. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

ASTM D4058-96(2020)

Standard Test Method for Attrition and Abrasion of Catalysts and Catalyst Carriers

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the attrition and abrasion resistance of catalysts and catalyst carriers. It is applicable to tablets, extrudate, spheres, and irregularly shaped particles larger than about 1 / 16 in. (1.6 mm) and smaller than about 3 / 4 in. (19 mm). The materials used in developing the method exhibited losses on attrition less than 7 %; however, the method should be applicable to materials giving much higher attritions. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

ASTM C1138M-19

Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Concrete (Underwater Method)

1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the relative resistance of concrete (including concrete overlays and impregnated concrete) to abrasion under water (see Note 1 ). This procedure simulates the abrasive action of waterborne particles (silt, sand, gravel, and other solids). Note 1: Other procedures are available for measuring abrasion resistance of concrete surfaces not under water. These include Test Methods C418 , C779/C779M , and C944/C944M . 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. ( Warning Fresh hydraulic cementitious mixtures are caustic and may cause chemical burns to skin and tissue upon prolonged exposure. 2 ) 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

IEC 62364 Ed. 2.0 b:2019

Hydraulic machines - Guidelines for dealing with hydro-abrasive erosion in Kaplan, Francis and Pelton turbines

IEC 62364:2019 is available as IEC 62364:2019 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition. IEC 62364:2019 gives guidelines for: a) presenting data on hydro-abrasive erosion rates on several combinations of water quality, operating conditions, component materials, and component properties collected from a variety of hydro sites; b) developing guidelines for the methods of minimizing hydro-abrasive erosion by modifications to hydraulic design for clean water. These guidelines do not include details such as hydraulic profile shapes which are determined by the hydraulic design experts for a given site; c) developing guidelines based on “experience data” concerning the relative resistance of materials faced with hydro-abrasive erosion problems; d) developing guidelines concerning the maintainability of materials with high resistance to hydro-abrasive erosion and hardcoatings; e) developing guidelines on a recommended approach, which owners could and should take to ensure that specifications communicate the need for particular attention to this aspect of hydraulic design at their sites without establishing criteria which cannot be satisfied because the means are beyond the control of the manufacturers; f) developing guidelines concerning operation mode of the hydro turbines in water with particle materials to increase the operation life. It is assumed in this document that the water is not chemically aggressive. Since chemical aggressiveness is dependent upon so many possible chemical compositions, and the materials of the machine, it is beyond the scope of this document to address these issues. It is assumed in this document that cavitation is not present in the turbine. Cavitation and hydro-abrasive erosion can reinforce each other so that the resulting erosion is larger than the sum of cavitation erosion plus hydro-abrasive erosion. The quantitative relationship of the resulting hydro-abrasive erosion is not known and it is beyond the scope of this document to assess it, except to suggest that special efforts be made in the turbine design phase to minimize cavitation. Large solids (e.g. stones, wood, ice, metal objects, etc.) traveling with the water can impact turbine components and produce damage. This damage can in turn increase the flow turbulence thereby accelerating wear by both cavitation and hydro-abrasive erosion. Hydro-abrasive erosion resistant coatings can also be damaged locally by impact of large solids. It is beyond the scope of this document to address these issues. This document focuses mainly on hydroelectric powerplant equipment. Certain portions can also be applicable to other hydraulic machines. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2013. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) the formula for TBO in Pelton reference model has been modified; b) the formula for calculating sampling interval has been modified; c) the chapter in hydro-abrasive erosion resistant coatings has been substantially modified; d) the annex with test data for hydro-abrasive erosion resistant materials has been removed; e) a simplified hydro-abrasive erosion evaluation has been added. Key words: Hydraulic Machines, Hydro-Abrasive Erosion, Kaplan, Francis, Pelton Turbines.

ISO 8251:2018

Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys - Measurement of abrasion resistance of anodic oxidation coatings

This document specifies the following tests: a) abrasive-wheel-wear test, determining the abrasion resistance of anodic oxidation coatings with abrasive wheel on flat specimens of aluminium and its alloys; b) abrasive jet test, determining the comparative abrasion resistance of anodic oxidation coatings with jet of abrasive particles on anodic oxidation coatings of aluminium and its alloys; c) falling sand abrasion test, determining the abrasion resistance of anodic oxidation coatings with falling sand on thin anodic oxidation coatings of aluminium and its alloys. The use of abrasive-wheel-wear test and abrasive jet test for coatings produced by hard anodizing is described in ISO 10074.

ASTM D5757-11(2017)

Standard Test Method for Determination of Attrition of FCC Catalysts by Air Jets

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the relative attrition characteristics of FCC catalysts by means of air jet attrition. Other fine powder catalysts can be analyzed by this test method but the precision of this test method has been determined only for FCC catalysts. It is applicable to spherically or irregularly shaped particles which range in size between 10 and 180 m, have skeletal densities between 2.4 and 3.0 g/cm 3 (2400 and 3000 kg/m 3 ) (see IEEE/ASTM SI-10 ) and are insoluble in water. Particles less than 20 m are considered fines. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.