Wastewater Sediment

Wastewater sediment particle testing standards are published by ISO, BS, and ASTM. ASTM documents cover standard guides, test methods, and practices on measuring physical and rheological properties, particle size analysis of fluvial sediments, splitting tensile strength for nuclear waste, sampling waste streams on conveyors, toxicity tests with polychaetous annelids, and toxicity of sediment-associated contaminants with freshwater invertebrates. BS documents cover topics from filtration properties of characterisation of sludges and leaching characterisation of waste. ISO documents cover hydrometry, genotoxicity of water, and measurement of liquid flow in open channels.

ISO 11657:2014

Hydrometry - Suspended sediment in streams and canals - Determination of concentration by surrogate techniques

ISO 11657:2014 specifies methods for determination of the concentrations and particle-size distributions of suspended sediment in streams and canals by surrogate techniques. ISO 11657:2014 covers brief description of the operating principle of each method and details of some of the instruments available.

BS EN 14701-2:2013

Characterisation of sludges. Filtration properties. Determination of the specific resistance to filtration (British Standard)

This European Standard specifies a method for determining the specific resistance to filtration of conditioned and non-conditioned sludges, provided that no sedimentation occurs during filtration (i.e. single phase suspension with particles in suspension). This European Standard is applicable to sludges and sludge suspensions from:-storm water handling;-urban wastewater collecting systems;-urban wastewater treatment plants;-industrial wastewater that has been treated similarly to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC);-water supply treatment plants.This method is also applicable to sludge and sludge suspensions of other origins.

ASTM C1752-21

Standard Guide for Measuring Physical and Rheological Properties of Radioactive Solutions, Slurries, and Sludges

1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 The intent of this guide is to provide guidance for the measurement and calculation of physical and rheological properties of radioactive solutions, slurries, and sludges as well as simulants designed to model the properties of these radioactive materials. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This guide is intended for measurement of mass and volume of the solution, slurries, and sludges as well as dissolved solids content in the liquid fraction and solids content associated with the slurries and sludges. Particle size distribution is also measured. 1.2.2 This guide identifies the data required and the equations recommended for calculation of density (bulk, settled solids, supernatant, and centrifuged solids), settling rate, volume and weight percent of the centrifuged solids and settled solids, and the weight percent undissolved solids, dissolved solids, and total oxides. 1.2.3 This guide is intended for measurement of shear strength and shear stress as a function of shear rate. 1.2.4 Rheological property measurement guidelines in this guide are limited to rotational rheometers. 1.2.5 This guide is limited to measurements of viscous and incipient flow and does not include oscillatory rheometry. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

ASTM D4822-88(2019)

Standard Guide for Selection of Methods of Particle Size Analysis of Fluvial Sediments (Manual Methods)

1.1 This guide covers the selection of methods for determining the size distribution of fluvial sediments particles in the range greater than 0.45 m using manual methods. Manual methods are defined as those methods that require the operator to do some actual measurements and calculations. An automated method would be one which, after the sample is prepared and inserted into an instrument, the instrument (machine) does the measuring and calculations, not the operator. Not all manual methods are presented in this guide. However, where available, at least two methods for each particle size range are given. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

ASTM C1144-89(2011)

Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength for Brittle Nuclear Waste Forms

1.1 This test method is used to measure the static splitting tensile strength of cylindrical specimens of brittle nuclear waste forms. It provides splitting tensile-strength data that can be used to compare the strength of waste forms when tests are done on one size of specimen. 1.2 The test method is applicable to glass, ceramic, and concrete waste forms that are sufficiently homogeneous (Note 1) but not to coated-particle, metal-matrix, bituminous, or plastic waste forms, or concretes with large-scale heterogeneities. Cementitious waste forms with heterogeneities >1 to 2 mm and 5 mm can be tested using this procedure provided the specimen size is increased from the reference size of 12.7 mm diameter by 6 mm length, to 51 mm diameter by 100 mm length, as recommended in Test Method C 496 and Practice C 192. Note 1 Generally, the specimen structural or microstructural heterogeneities must be less than about one-tenth the diameter of the specimen. 1.3 This test method can be used as a quality control check on brittle waste forms and may be useful for optimizing waste form processing. Meaningful comparison of waste forms, however, requires data obtained on specimens of one size. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.5 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements, see Section 7.

ASTM D7204-15

Standard Practice for Sampling Waste Streams on Conveyors

1.1 This practice describes standard procedures for sampling waste on open and closed conveying systems and is applicable to any waste material that can be conveyed to a waste pile or container. The conveyor system can be a vertical (vertical lifts), sloped or horizontal type. 1.2 This practice is intended for particles and slurries, which can be sampled using scoop, dipper, or shovel type samplers. 1.3 The practice is not intended for large size sample constituents, such as boulders, large rocks, and debris. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

ASTM E1611-21

Standard Guide for Conducting Sediment Toxicity Tests with Polychaetous Annelids

1.1 This guide covers procedures for obtaining laboratory data concerning the adverse effects of potentially contaminated sediment, or of a test material added experimentally to contaminated or uncontaminated sediment, on marine or estuarine infaunal polychaetes during 10-day or 20 to 28-day exposures. These procedures are useful for testing the effects of various geochemical characteristics of sediments on marine and estuarine polychaetes and could be used to assess sediment toxicity to other infaunal taxa, although modifications of the procedures appropriate to the test species might be necessary. Procedures for the 10-day static test are described for Neanthes arenaceodentata and Alitta virens 2 (formerly Nereis virens and Neanthes virens ) and for the 20 to 28-day static-renewal sediment toxicity for N. arenaceodentata . 1.2 Modifications of these procedures might be appropriate for other sediment toxicity test procedures, such as flow-through or partial life-cycle tests. The methods outlined in this guide should also be useful for conducting sediment toxicity tests with other aquatic taxa, although modifications might be necessary. Other test organisms might include other species of polychaetes, crustaceans, and bivalves. 1.3 Other modifications of these procedures might be appropriate for special needs or circumstances. Although using appropriate procedures is more important than following prescribed procedures, the results of tests conducted using unusual procedures are not likely to be comparable to those of many other tests. Comparisons of the results obtained using modified and unmodified versions of these procedures might provide useful information concerning new concepts and procedures for conducting sediment tests with infaunal organisms. 1.4 These procedures are applicable to sediments contaminated with most chemicals, either individually or in formulations, commercial products, and known or unknown mixtures. These procedures can be used with appropriate modifications to conduct sediment toxicity tests on factors such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and natural sediment characteristics (for example, particle size distribution, organic carbon content, and total solids). These procedures can also be used to conduct bioconcentration tests and in situ tests, and to assess the toxicity of potentially contaminated field sediments, or of materials such as sewage sludge, oils, particulate matter, and solutions of toxicants added to sediments. A median lethal concentration (LC50) or median sublethal effect concentration (EC50) of toxicants or of highly contaminated sediment mixed into uncontaminated sediment can be determined. Materials adhering to sediment particles or dissolved in interstitial water can be tested. 1.5 The results of 10-day toxicity tests with contaminated sediments can be reported as a LC50 if a series of concentrations is tested or as a percent mortality relative to a control or reference sediment. The results of 20 to 28-day toxicity tests with contaminated sediments can be reported as a LC50 if a series of concentrations is tested or as a percent mortality or growth relative to a control or reference sediment. 1.6 This guide is arranged as follows: 1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazards statements are given in Section 8 . 1.9 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

ASTM E1706-20

Standard Test Method for Measuring the Toxicity of Sediment-Associated Contaminants with Freshwater Invertebrates

1.1 Relevance of Sediment Contamination Sediment provides habitat for many aquatic organisms and is a major repository for many of the more persistent chemicals that are introduced into surface waters. In the aquatic environment, both organic and inorganic chemicals may accumulate in sediment, which can in turn serve as a source of exposure for organisms living on or in sediment. Contaminated sediments may be directly toxic to aquatic life or can be a source of contaminants for bioaccumulation in the food chain. 1.2 Sediment Assessment Tools Several types of information may be useful in assessing the risk, or potential risk, posed by sediment contaminants, including: ( 1 ) chemical analysis of sediment contaminants; ( 2 ) sediment toxicity tests, ( 3 ) bioaccumulation tests; and ( 4 ) surveys of benthic community structure. Each of these provides a different type of information to the assessment, and integrating information from all four lines of evidence may often provide the most robust assessments. 1.3 Strengths of Toxicity Testing of Contaminated Sediments Directly assessing the toxicity of contaminated sediments provides some of the same advantages to sediment assessment that whole effluent toxicity testing provides to management of industrial and municipal effluents. As for effluent tests, direct testing of sediment toxicity allows the assessment of biological effects even if: ( 1 ) the identities of toxic chemicals present are not (or not completely) known; ( 2 ) the influence of site-specific characteristics of sediments on toxicity (bioavailability) is not understood; and ( 3 ) the interactive or aggregate effects of mixtures of chemicals present are not known or cannot be adequately predicted. In addition, testing the response of benthic or epibenthic organisms exposed via sediment provides an assessment that is based on the same routes of exposure that would exist in nature, rather than only through water column exposure. 1.4 Relating Sediment Exposure to Toxicity One of the challenges with sediment assessment is that the toxicity of sediment contaminants can vary greatly with differences in sediment characteristics; a bulk sediment concentration (normalized to dry weight) may be sufficient to cause toxicity in one sediment, while the same concentration in another sediment does not cause toxicity (for example, Adams et al. 1985) ( 1 ) . 2 Factors such as the amount and characteristics of the organic carbon present in sediment can alter the bioavailability of many chemicals (Di Toro et al. 1991 ( 2 ) ; Ghosh 2007 ( 3 ) ), as can other characteristics such as acid volatile sulfide or iron and manganese oxides (Di Toro et al. 1990 ( 4 ) , Tessier et al. 1996 ( 5 ) ). Direct measurement of toxicity in contaminated sediments can provide a means to measure the aggregate effects of such factors on the bioavailability of sediment toxicants. 1.5 Understanding the Causes of Sediment Toxicity While direct testing of sediment toxicity has the advantage of being able to detect the effects of any toxic chemical present, it has the disadvantage of not providing any specific indication of what chemical or chemicals are causing the observed responses. Other techniques, such as spiked-sediment toxicity tests or Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods for sediments have been developed and are available to help evaluate cause/effect relationships (USEPA 2007) ( 6 ) . 1.6 Uses of Sediment Toxicity Tests Toxicity tests conducted on sediments collected from field locations can be used to: ( 1 ) conduct surveys of sediment quality as measured by sediment toxicity; ( 2 ) prioritize areas of sediment for more detailed investigation of sediment contamination; ( 3 ) determine the spatial extent of sediment toxicity; ( 4 ) compare the sensitivity of different organisms to sediment contamination; ( 5 ) evaluate the relationship between the degree of sediment contamination and biological effects along a contamination gradient; ( 6 ) evaluate the suitability of sediments for removal and placement at other location (for example, dredged material disposal); ( 7 ) help establish goals for remedial actions; and ( 8 ) assess the effectiveness of remedial actions at reducing sediment toxicity. These applications are generally targeted at assessing the likely biological effects of bedded sediments at field sites at the time of sampling. However, toxicity testing of natural or artificial sediments spiked with known quantities of chemicals can also be used to evaluate additional questions such as: ( 1 ) determining the potency of a chemical to organisms exposed via sediment; ( 2 ) evaluating the effect of sediment composition on chemical bioavailability or toxicity; ( 3 ) informing chemical-specific risk assessments for chemicals that may accumulate and persist in sediments upon release; ( 4 ) establishing regulatory guidance for chemicals in water or sediment. Spiked sediment studies have the advantage of allowing uni-variate experiments in which exposure gradients can be reliably constructed; as such they lend themselves to the derivation of standardized point estimates of effect, such as a median lethal concentration (LC50) or concentration reducing sublethal performance by a specified amount, such as an effect concentration (for example, EC20 estimated to reduce weight of test organisms by 20 %). 1.7 Limitations While some safety considerations are included in this standard, it is beyond the scope of this standard to encompass all safety requirements necessary to conduct sediment toxicity tests. 1.8 This standard is arranged as follows: 1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements are given in Section 8 . 1.10 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

BS EN 12457-1:2002

Characterisation of waste. Leaching. Compliance test for leaching of granular waste materials and sludges. One stage batch test at a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg for materials with high solid content and with particle size below 4 mm (without or with size reduction) (British Standard)

This part of European Standard specifies a compliance test providing information on leaching of granular wastes and sludges under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg dry matter. It applies to waste which has a particle size below 4 mm without or with size reduction. The test procedure specified in this Standard produces an eluate which shall subsequently be characterized physically and chemically according to appropriate standard methods.

BS EN 12457-2:2002

Characterisation of waste. Leaching. Compliance test for leaching of granular waste materials and sludges. One stage batch test at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg for materials with particle size below 4 mm (without or with size reduction) (British Standard)

This part of the European Standard specifies a compliance test providing information on leaching of granular wastes and sludges under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg dry matter. It applies to waste which has a particle size below 4 mm without or with size reduction. The test procedure specified in this Standard produces an eluate which shall subsequently be characterised physically and chemically according to appropriate standard methods.

BS EN 12457-3:2002

Characterisation of waste. Leaching. Compliance test for leaching of granular waste materials and sludges. Two stage batch test at a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg and 8 l/kg for materials with a high solid content and with a particle size below 4 mm (without or with size reduction) (British Standard)

This part of the European Standard specifies a compliance test providing information on leaching of granular wastes and sludges under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg dry matter and subsequently of 8 l/kg dry matter. It applies to waste which has a particle size below 4 mm without or with size reduction. The test procedure specified in this Standard produces an eluate which shall subsequently be characterised physically and chemically according to appropriate standard methods.

BS EN 12457-4:2002

Characterisation of waste. Leaching. Compliance test for leaching of granular waste materials and sludges. One stage batch test at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg for materials with particle size below 10 mm (without or with size reduction) (British Standard)

This part of the European Standard specifies a compliance test providing information on leaching of granular wastes and sludges under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg dry matter. It applies to waste which has a particle size below 10 mm without or with limited size reduction. Note: In some cases, it could be useful to test the material with coarser particles up to 40 mm in diameter: This requires a larger amount for material and liquid.

ISO 16240:2005

Water quality - Determination of the genotoxicity of water and waste water - Salmonella/microsome test (Ames test)

ISO 16240:2005 specifies a method for the determination of the genotoxic potential of water and wastewater using the bacterial strains Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 and TA 98. This method includes sterile filtration of water and wastewater prior to the test. ISO 16240:2005 is applicable only to the detection of genotoxic substances which are in the filtered aqueous phase. It is not applicable to the detection of genotoxic substances adsorbed by the retained particles.

ISO 4363:2002

Measurement of liquid flow in open channels - Methods for measurement of characteristics of suspended sediment

ISO 4363:2002 specifies conventional and simplified methods for the measurement of cross-sectional mean suspended sediment mass concentration and mean particle size distribution. The conventional method is used for routine measurements in periods of stable or slowly varied flow. The simplified method is mainly used for sediment measurements for the purpose of observing the variation process of sediment transport and can be performed under difficult conditions. Empirical relationships are established between the cross-sectional mean suspended sediment mass concentrations and mean particle size distributions measured by conventional and simplified methods. The methods specified in ISO 4363:2002 are applicable to suspended sediment measurements at hydrological stations.

ISO 4365:2005

Liquid flow in open channels - Sediment in streams and canals - Determination of concentration, particle size distribution and relative density

ISO 4365:2005 specifies methods for determining the concentration, particle-size distribution and relative density of sediment in streams and canals. The detailed methods of analysis are given for the following: determination of the suspended sediment concentration by evaporation and filtration; particle-size analysis of suspended sediment; determination of the bed-load and bed material sediment; determination of the relative density of sediment; determination of particle-size distribution characteristics.