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Water Quality

Water quality particle testing standards are published by AWWA and ISO. ISO documents cover water quality determination of selected elements and trace elements using coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnaces, detection and enumeration of bacteriophages, evaluation of aerobic biodegradability, determination of total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon, and performance characteristics of quantitative microbiological methods. In addition, AWWA M37 covers the operational control of coagulation and filtration processes.

AWWA M37-2011

Operational Control Of Coagulation And Filtration Processes, Third Edition

This manual describes jar testing, particle counting, and other techniques and processes for monitoring, optimizing, and controlling water treatment processes.

ISO 11885:2007

Water quality - Determination of selected elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)

ISO 11885:2007 specifies a method for the determination of dissolved elements, elements bound to particles ( particulate ) and total content of elements in different types of water (e.g. ground, surface, raw, potable and waste water) for the following elements: aluminium, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, silicon, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfur, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, zinc and zirconium. Taking into account the specific and additionally occurring interferences, these elements can also be determined in digests of water, sludges and sediments (for example, digests of water as specified in ISO 15587 1 or ISO 15587 2). The method is suitable for mass concentrations of particulate matter in waste water below 2 g/l. The scope of this method may be extended to other matrices or to higher amounts of particulate matter if it can be shown that additionally occurring interferences are considered and corrected for carefully. It is up to the user to demonstrate the fitness for purpose.

ISO 10705-3:2003

Water quality - Detection and enumeration of bacteriophages - Part 3: Validation of methods for concentration of bacteriophages from water

ISO 10705-3:2003 specifies the general principles for assessing the performance of methods for the concentration of bacteriophages from water. Concentration is recommended for those water samples expected to contain 3 pfp (plaque-forming particles) per millilitre. Concentration methods can be applied to all kinds of water provided that the amount and nature of suspended solids and/or dissolved matter do not interfere with the concentration procedure. ISO 10705-3:2003 does not give specific details of concentration methods, but outlines the fundamental principles for evaluating the suitability of a particular method for a given type and volume of water. Annex A gives examples of methods that have been found satisfactory and their fields of application.

ISO 15586:2003

Water quality - Determination of trace elements using atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace

ISO 15586:2003 includes principles and procedures for the determination of trace levels of: Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn in surface water, ground water, drinking water, wastewater and sediments, using atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization in a graphite furnace. The method is applicable to the determination of low concentrations of elements. The detection limit of the method for each element depends on the sample matrix as well as of the instrument, the type of atomizer and the use of chemical modifiers. For water samples with a simple matrix (i.e. low concentration of dissolved solids and particles), the method detection limits will be close to instrument detection limits. The minimum acceptable detection limit values for a 20-microlitre sample volume are specified.

ISO 14592-1:2002

Water quality - Evaluation of the aerobic biodegradability of organic compounds at low concentrations - Part 1: Shake-flask batch test with surface water or surface water/sediment suspensions

ISO 14592-1:2002 specifies a test method for evaluating the biodegradability of organic test compounds by aerobic microorganisms in surface waters by means of a shake-flask batch test with suspended biomass. It is applicable to natural surface water, free from coarse particles to simulate a pelagic environment (pelagic test) or to surface water with suspended solids or sediments added to obtain a level of 0,1 g/l to 1 g/l dry mass (suspended sediment test) to simulate a water-to-sediment interface or a water body with resuspended sediment material. ISO 14592-1:2002 is applicable to organic test compounds present in lower concentrations (normally below 100 micrograms per litre) than those of natural carbon substrates also present in the system. Under these conditions, the test compounds serve as a secondary substrate and the kinetics for biodegradation would be expected to be first order (non-growth kinetics). This test method is not recommended for use as proof of ultimate biodegradation which is better assessed using other standardized tests. It is also not applicable to studies on metabolite formation and accumulation which require higher test concentrations.

ISO 8245:1999

Water quality -- Guidelines for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

This International Standard gives guidance for the determination of total carbon (TC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and total organic carbon (TOC) in drinking water, ground water, surface water, sea water and waste water. It also defines terms and specifies interferences, reagents, and sample pretreatment for water samples. The method described in this International Standard applies to water samples containing organic carbon content ranging from 0,3 mg/l to 1000 mg/l. The lower limit concentration is only applicable in special cases, for example drinking water, measured by highly sensitive instruments. Higher concentrations may be determined after appropriate dilution. This International Standard does not deal with the instrument-dependent specifications. Purgeable organic substances, such as benzene, toluene, cyclohexane and chloroform, can also be determined using this method. Cyanide, cyanate and particles of elemental carbon (soot), when present in the sample, can be determined together with the organic carbon.

ISO 13843:2017

Water quality - Requirements for establishing performance characteristics of quantitative microbiological methods

ISO 13843:2017 deals with characterization of microbiological methods. In terms of ISO 13843:2017, characterization means the study of parameters that can be measured to describe how the method is likely to perform in a given set of conditions, which can be described as performance characteristics. ISO 13843:2017 describes procedures for the determination of performance characteristics which can be used for subsequent validation or verification of methods. The emphasis is on selective quantitative methods and ISO 13843:2017 applies to all types of water. For methods that are not based upon direct microscopic count, colony count or most probable number, the applicability of the procedures described in ISO 13843:2017 should be considered carefully.


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