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Blockchain

Blockchain standards are published by ISO, NEMA, IPC, DIN, and more, on topics such as privacy considerations, risk assessment, and terminology. Many standards are published in languages other than English, such as German, and are available as a free PDF download in some cases. With a variety of perspectives and topics, these standards could help you make a decision on how to use blockchain technology for your business or organization. Blockchain is a digital decentralized ledger of records called blocks that are linked together using cryptography. Blockchain ledgers are often used to act as a public transaction ledger for cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. They cover a variety of topics regarding decentralized digital ledgers including formatting, terminology, validation of data, risk assessment, and the other applications of blockchain outside of cryptocurrency.

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NEMA BC 1-2020

Blockchain Technical Guidance for the Electroindustry

This is a technical guidance document meant to help NEMA member companies get a better understanding of blockchain, explore existing Blockchain use cases, and provide guidelines and strategies for moving forward with blockchain.


IPC WP-026-2019

IPC Technology Solutions White Paper on Blockchain and the Electronics Industry: A Review of the Current State of Blockchain Technology and Its Potential Applications in Electronics Manufacturing

The IPC-WP-026 white paper explores blockchain as an emerging technology that has a core strength in providing an immutable, auditable, transparent and secure environment for data exchanges. These advantages make it a prime candidate for implementation in the electronics industry.  The IPC-WP-026 white paper explores blockchain and its limitations and challenges. It also provides a few directions in which blockchain could be used in the electronics manufacturing industry to improve business operations.


DS/ISO 22739:2020

Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies - Vocabulary

This document provides fundamental terminology for blockchain and distributed ledger technologies.


ASC X9 TR 54-2021

Blockchain Risk Assessment Framework

This technical report (TR) provides a framework for the performance of operational risk assessments on blockchain systems and applications within a distributed network. Operational risks include information technology (IT) and information security (IS) areas. IT includes interoperability, resiliency, accessibility, and software maintenance. IS includes data integrity, confidentiality, authentication, authorization, and accountability (logging capability). This report features some aspects of application risks including data accuracy, version control, backwards compatibility, and other usability functions.


ISO/TR 23244:2020

Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies - Privacy and personally identifiable information protection considerations

This document provides an overview of privacy and personally identifiable information (PII) protection as applied to blockchain and distributed ledger technologies (DLT) systems.


ISO/TR 23455:2019

Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies - Overview of and interactions between smart contracts in blockchain and distributed ledger technology systems

This document provides an overview of smart contracts in BC/DLT systems; describing what smart contracts are and how they work. It also discusses methods of interaction between multiple smart contracts. This document focuses on technical aspects of smart contracts. Smart contracts for legally binding use and applications will only be briefly mentioned in this document.


ISO/TR 23576:2020

Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies - Security management of digital asset custodians

This document discusses the threats, risks, and controls related to:

— systems that provide digital asset custodian services and/or exchange services to their customers (consumers and businesses) and management of security when an incident occurs;

— asset information (including the signature key of the digital asset) that a custodian of digital assets manages.

This document is addressed to digital asset custodians that manage signature keys associated with digital asset accounts. In such a case, certain specific recommendations apply.

The following is out of scope of this document:

— core security controls of blockchain and DLT systems;

— business risks of digital asset custodians;

— segregation of customer's assets;

— governance and management issues.


DIN SPEC 4997:2020

Privacy by Blockchain Design: A standardised model for processing personal data using blockchain technology; Text in English

This DIN SPEC in accordance with the PAS procedure has been drawn up by a DIN SPEC (PAS)-consortium set up on a temporary basis. This DIN SPEC has been developed and approved by the authors named in the foreword of the DIN SPEC. This DIN SPEC establishes general principles for and methods of handling personal data in BC/DLT systems. It specifies technical and organizational measures for data protection while taking into account the principles of “privacy by design” as well as specifications that are inspired by legal frameworks, such as the GDPR. The document defines relevant terms for both technical as well as legal experts and establishes a methodological framework that helps to identify types of data (encrypted and not encrypted) as well as mapping legal principles of the GDPR to technical measures available to improve data protection or mitigate the risk of processing personal data in BC/DLT systems. This DIN SPEC is aimed towards establishing a high level of privacy in BC/DLT systems. This document is applicable to all BC/DLT systems.


DIN SPEC 16597:2018

Terminology for blockchains; Text in English

This DIN SPEC 16597 in accordance with the PAS procedure was developed within a workshop set up on a temporary basis. The DIN SPEC was developed and approved by the authors named in the foreword. This DIN SPEC specifies general blockchain terms. Being industry and usage independent, it considers a variety of existing blockchain specifications such as "block", "blockchain", "consensus pro-cess", "cryptocurrency", "decentralized", "distributed", "distributed ledger", "double spending", "hard fork", "soft fork", "node", "nonce", "PoS", "PoW", "smart contract", "51 % attack" and "mining". This DIN SPEC can build the basis for all following phases in the innovation cycle and the following standardization processes.


DIN/TS 31648:2021 DE

Kriterien für vertrauenswürdige Transaktionen - Records Management und Beweiswerterhaltung in Distributed Ledger Technologien und Blockchain

Dieses Dokument legt fachliche und technische Kriterien zur Anwendung der Blockchain und Distributed Ledger Technologie (DLT)für vertrauenswürdige digitale Transaktionen sowie der notwendigen Berechtigungsmodelle aus Sicht der Nachweisfähigkeit (Records Management) und Beweiswerterhaltung fest. Dieses Dokument gilt für alle digitalen Transaktionen, die gesetzlichen oder sonstigen Dokumentations , Aufbewahrungs und Nachweispflichten unterliegen, für die damit ein ordnungsgemäßes Records Management sowie Beweiswerterhaltung nach dem Stand der Technik erforderlich ist und die mit Blockchain/DLT abgebildet werden sollen.


DS/ISO/TR 23244:2020

Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies - Privacy and personally identifiable information protection considerations

This document provides an overview of privacy and personally identifiable information (PII) protection as applied to blockchain and distributed ledger technologies (DLT) systems.


DS/ISO/TR 23455:2019

Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies - Overview of and interactions between smart contracts in blockchain and distributed ledger technology systems

This document provides an overview of smart contracts in BC/DLT systems; describing what smart contracts are and how they work. It also discusses methods of interaction between multiple smart contracts. This document focuses on technical aspects of smart contracts. Smart contracts for legally binding use and applications will only be briefly mentioned in this document.


DS/ISO/TR 23576:2020

Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies - Security management of digital asset custodians

This document discusses the threats, risks, and controls related to:*— systems that provide digital asset custodian services and/or exchange services to their customers (consumers and businesses) and management of security when an incident occurs;*— asset information (including the signature key of the digital asset) that a custodian of digital assets manages.*This document is addressed to digital asset custodians that manage signature keys associated with digital asset accounts. In such a case, certain specific recommendations apply.*The following is out of scope of this document:*— core security controls of blockchain and DLT systems;*— business risks of digital asset custodians;*— segregation of customer's assets;*— governance and management issues.


DIN SPEC 3103:2019 DE

Blockchain und Distributed Ledger Technologien in Anwendungsszenarien für Industrie 4.0

Diese DIN SPEC wurde im Zuge des PAS-Verfahrens durch ein DIN SPEC (PAS)-Konsortium (temporäres Gremium) erarbeitet. Die Erarbeitung und Verabschiedung dieser DIN SPEC (PAS) erfolgte durch die im Vorwort genannten Verfasser. Diese DIN SPEC stellt beispielhafte Anwendungen von Smart Contracts und Komponenten im Industrie 4.0-Umfeld nach RAMI 4.0 dar. In dieser DIN SPEC werden relevante Anwendungsfälle aus den Anwendungsszenarien der Plattform Industrie 4.0 abgeleitet. Anhand dieser Anwendungsfälle werden Grundbausteine für BC/DLT-Systeme im I4.0-Kontext erarbeitet und dargestellt. Darüber hinaus werden mögliche Anbindungen von Sensoren nach BC/DLT-Protokollen beschrieben, um damit im Industrial Internet-of-Things(IoT)-Umfeld, insbesondere aber im Gebiet Industrie 4.0 (I4.0), Transaktionen unter Berücksichtigung rechtlicher Rahmenbedingungen sensor- und maschinengesteuert automatisiert ausführen zu können.*Diese DIN SPEC wurde im Zuge des PAS-Verfahrens durch ein DIN SPEC (PAS)-Konsortium (temporäres Gremium) erarbeitet. Die Erarbeitung und Verabschiedung dieser DIN SPEC (PAS) erfolgte durch die im Vorwort genannten Verfasser. Diese DIN SPEC stellt beispielhafte Anwendungen von Smart Contracts und Komponenten im Industrie 4.0-Umfeld nach RAMI 4.0 dar. In dieser DIN SPEC werden relevante Anwendungsfälle aus den Anwendungsszenarien der Plattform Industrie 4.0 abgeleitet. Anhand dieser Anwendungsfälle werden Grundbausteine für BC/DLT-Systeme im I4.0-Kontext erarbeitet und dargestellt. Darüber hinaus werden mögliche Anbindungen von Sensoren nach BC/DLT-Protokollen beschrieben, um damit im Industrial Internet-of-Things(IoT)-Umfeld, insbesondere aber im Gebiet Industrie 4.0 (I4.0), Transaktionen unter Berücksichtigung rechtlicher Rahmenbedingungen sensor- und maschinengesteuert automatisiert ausführen zu können. Diese Betrachtungen sollen als Entscheidungshilfe bei der Evaluierung von BC/DLT-Systemen im Industrie 4.0-Umfeld ..( text verkürztes wegen der Zeichenzählung)


ANSI X9.138-2020

Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) Terminology

This standard defines terminology for blockchain, digital currency, and distributed ledger technologies (DLT) for use in the financial services industry. These defined terms are intended to assist regulators, inform future legislation, and provide consistency in the development of future X9 financial services standards. A standardized vocabulary will help remove barriers to the adoption of new technologies that can improve operating efficiency in financial services, reduce cost for banks and their customers, and lead to greater understanding in our legal and regulatory community. The scope of this standard includes terms used to describe blockchain, digital currency, and DLT. These include terms related to business, legal, legislation, and technology.


DIN SPEC 4996:2020 DE

Blockchain-basierter Ansatz zur Übertragung von Softwarelizenzen; Text Deutsch und Englisch

Diese DIN SPEC wurde im Zuge des PAS-Verfahrens durch ein DIN SPEC (PAS)-Konsortium (temporäres Gremium) erarbeitet. Die Erarbeitung und Verabschiedung dieser DIN SPEC erfolgte durch die im Vorwort der DIN SPEC genannten Verfasser. Dieses Dokument legt den Prozess und die notwendigen Rahmenbedingungen für die revisionssichere Dokumentation des Erwerbs sowie der Weiterübertragung von Softwarenutzungsrechten in einer Distributed Ledger Technologie fest. Es werden die für eine digitale Darstellung der Übertragung von Lizenznutzungsrechten mindestens notwendigen Anforderungen definiert. Grundlage ist die Distributed Ledger Technologie, wie beispielsweise Blockchain, die es ermöglicht, Transaktionszeitpunkte und Lizenzinformationen unveränderbar zum entstandenen Zeitpunkt manipulationssicher festzuhalten und revisionssicher nachzuweisen.*Dieses Dokument legt den Prozess und die notwendigen Rahmenbedingungen für die revisionssichere Dokumentation des Erwerbs sowie der Weiterübertragung von Softwarenutzungsrechten in einer Distributed Ledger-Technologie fest. Es werden die für eine digitale Darstellung der Übertragung von Lizenznutzungsrechten mindestens notwendigen Anforderungen definiert. Grundlage ist die Distributed Ledger-Technologie, wie beispielsweise Blockchain, die es ermöglicht, Transaktionszeitpunkte und Lizenzinformationen unveränderbar zum entstandenen Zeitpunkt manipulationssicher festzuhalten und revisionssicher nachzuweisen.


DIN SPEC 3104:2019

Blockchain-based validation of data; Text in English

This DIN SPEC in accordance with the PAS procedure has been drawn up by a DIN SPEC (PAS)-consortium set up on a temporary basis. This DIN SPEC has been developed and approved by the authors named in the foreword of the DIN SPEC. This DIN SPEC specifies the technical framework and functions of blockchain validation software for blockchain validation processes. In particular, it provides requirements and evaluation criteria for blockchain proof of correctness and blockchain time-stamping functional aspects. The evaluation criteria are given for public proof of work blockchains, as these are the main ones being used in blockchain validation software. The criteria do not specify when blockchain time-stamps are considered good, but instead require the software to provide the users with sufficient information to make a judgment on their own. Other functional aspects of blockchain validation software, in particular the identification of users and the storage of data, as well as topics involving the development of the software itself, such as quality assurance, are not covered by this document. This DIN SPEC is aimed towards blockchain validation software users. A discussion regarding the software of public proof of work blockchain themselves is not part of this specification. This document is applicable to blockchain-based validation in general as well as specific applications, such as: - Proof of physical and intellectual property rights (except form requirements), - Declarations of intent (except written form requirements), - Public registers, - Website and accounting document validation, - Facilitating blockchain-based validation of documents in a multinational environment and - Energy networks and SmartMeter technologies. The certification and notarization of documents is not in scope of this document as these processes are specified by national and European law.


DIN SPEC 4996:2020

Blockchain-based approach to the transfer of software licenses; Text in German and English

This DIN SPEC in accordance with the PAS procedure has been drawn up by a DIN SPEC (PAS)-consortium set up on a temporary basis. This DIN SPEC has been developed and approved by the authors named in the foreword of the DIN SPEC. This document defines the process and the necessary conditions for the audit-proof documentation of the acquisition and onward transfer of software usage rights using a Distributed Ledger Technology. The minimum requirements necessary for a digital representation of the transfer of license usage rights are defined. The basis is the Distributed Ledger Technology, such as Blockchain, which makes it possible to record transaction dates and license information in an immutable and tamper-proof manner at the time they occur and to prove them in an audit-proof manner.


IEEE 2144.1-2020

IEEE Standard for Framework of Blockchain-based Internet of Things (IoT ) Data Management

New IEEE Standard - Active. A framework of blockchain-based Internet of Things (IoT ) data management is defined in this standard. It identifies the common building blocks of the framework that blockchain enabled during IoT data lifecycle including data acquisition, processing, storage, analyzing, usage/exchange and obsoletion, and the interactions among these building blocks. 


SAE ARP 6984-2021

Determination of Cost Benefits from Implementing a Blockchain Solution

This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides insights on how to perform a Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) to determine the Return on Investment (ROI) that would result from implementing a blockchain solution to a new or an existing business process. The word “blockchain” refers to a method of documenting when data transactions occur using a distributed ledger with desired immutable qualities. The scope of the current document is on enterprise blockchain which gives the benefit of standardized cryptography, legal enforceability and regulatory compliance. The document analyzes the complexity involved with this technology, lists some of the different approaches that can be used for conducting a CBA, and differentiates its analysis depending on whether the application uses a public or a private distributed network. This document is intended for people who do not have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with blockchain solutions to qualify and quantify its economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition).


IEEE 2142.1-2021

IEEE Recommended Practice for E-Invoice Business Using Blockchain Technology

New IEEE Standard - Active. Described in this standard is the blockchain-based application reference architecture of e-invoice business, including roles of participants, typical business scenarios, platform frameworks, and security requirements. 


IEEE 2418.2-2020

IEEE Standard for Data Format for Blockchain Systems

New IEEE Standard - Active. Data format requirements for blockchain systems are established in this standard. This standard addresses data structures, data types, and data elements. 


PD ISO/TR 23455:2019

Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies. Overview of and interactions between smart contracts in blockchain and distributed ledger technology systems (British Standard)

This document provides an overview of smart contracts in BC/DLT systems; describing what smart contracts are and how they work. It also discusses methods of interaction between multiple smart contracts. This document focuses on technical aspects of smart contracts. Smart contracts for legally binding use and applications will only be briefly mentioned in this document.


Pre-Standards Workstream Report

Clinical IoT Data Validation and Interoperability with Blockchain

The IEEE Standards Association (IEEE SA) pre-standards workstream for Clinical Internet of Things (IoT) data validation and interoperability with blockchain was initiated to determine if a viable standards framework could be established to enable the validation of data generated from a clinical-grade IoT device and shared through the interoperability of blockchain technology. Participants in the workstream were gathered from an IEEE SA workshop held at Johns Hopkins University in Rockville, Maryland in April 2018, and grew to include their network of healthcare and Health-IT ecosystem players, as well as participants in prior IEEE SA efforts in related areas. The workstream commenced in August 2018 and completed in February 2019. Participants in this pre-standards workstream who are the authors of this paper are listed in Appendix A. The pre-standards workstream led to the recommendation of the development of an IEEE SA Standards effort on Clinical IoT data and device interoperability with TIPPSS-Trust, Identity, Privacy, Protection, Safety and Security-in connected healthcare to improve data sharing and healthcare outcomes. The pre-standards workstream team decided that blockchain is not necessary for clinical IoT data and device interoperability and validation, nor does it necessarily meet the robust TIPPSS needs in connected healthcare. The workstream recommendation includes a draft TIPPSS Architectural Framework for Clinical IoT data validation & interoperability, which could include digital ledger technology but does not need to do so. The resulting IEEE Standards Association P2733 working group to develop a standard for Clinical IoT Data and Device Interoperability with TIPPSS kick off meeting is scheduled for July 17, 2019, sponsored by the IEEE SA Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS). 


PD ISO/TR 23244:2020

Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies. Privacy and personally identifiable information protection considerations (British Standard)

This document provides an overview of privacy and personally identifiable information (PII) protection as applied to blockchain and distributed ledger technologies (DLT) systems.


PD ISO/TR 23576:2020

Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies. Security management of digital asset custodians (British Standard)

This document discusses the threats, risks, and controls related to:

— systems that provide digital asset custodian services and/or exchange services to their customers (consumers and businesses) and management of security when an incident occurs;

— asset information (including the signature key of the digital asset) that a custodian of digital assets manages.

This document is addressed to digital asset custodians that manage signature keys associated with digital asset accounts. In such a case, certain specific recommendations apply.

The following is out of scope of this document:

— core security controls of blockchain and DLT systems;

— business risks of digital asset custodians;

— segregation of customer's assets;

— governance and management issues.


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