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Treatment Standards

Wastewater treatment standards provide guides, standard practices, and specifications for the systems used for wastewater treatment, their operation, maintenance, and verification. With standards developed by multiple standards developing organizations, such as the American Water Works Association (AWWA), NSF International, and ASTM International, the treatment of wastewater is an endeavor that forces the cooperation between many entities.

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AWWA B130-2018

Membrane Bioreactor Systems

This standard sets minimum requirements for membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems, including associated processes such as membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) systems and anaerobic MBR systems, for water reclamation, water recovery, and/or wastewater treatment systems.


NSF P231-2003

Microbiological Water Purifiers

Microbiological water purifiers use chemical, mechanical, and/or physical technologies to filter and treat waters of unknown microbiological quality, but are presumed to be potable. This protocol addresses systems having a flow rate of 5 gpm or less and contains minimum requirements for materials, design and construction, and performance of these systems. The systems are not intended to convert wastewater or raw sewage into drinking water. System components covered under other NSF or NSF/ANSI standards or criteria shall also comply with the requirements contained in those other standards. This protocol shall in no way restrict new system designs, provided such designs meet the minimum specifications described herein.


NSF/ANSI 55-2019

Ultraviolet Microbiological Water Treatment Systems

This Standard covers UV microbiological water treatment systems and components for point-of-use (POU) and point-of-entry (POE) applications. This Standard covers systems which use UV radiation within the range of 240 nm to 300 nm inclusive. Systems are intended to be used under the following specific conditions.


NSF/ANSI 58-2013

Reverse osmosis drinking water treatment systems

This revision addresses tentatively identified compounds (TICs) and unknown compounds that are found during extraction testing under section 4 and clarifies the analytical method(s) to be used to evaluate these compounds under Annex C.


NSF/ANSI 62-2018

Drinking Water Distillation Systems

This Standard establishes minimum materials, design and construction, and performance requirements for point-of-use (POU) and point-of-entry (POE) drinking water distillation systems and the components used in these systems.


NSF/ANSI 40-2018

Residential Wastewater Treatment Systems

Establishes minimum materials, design and construction, and performance requirements for residential wastewater treatment systems. This standard also specifies the minimum literature that manufacturers shall supply to authorized representatives and owners as well as the minimum service-related obligations that manufacturers shall extend to owners.


NSF/ANSI 46-2018

Evaluation of Components and Devices Used in Wastewater Treatment Systems

This Standard is intended for use with components and devices not covered by other NSF wastewater standards. Components and devices covered by this Standard are intended for use with greywater or blackwater, or both. Management methods for the end-products of these components and devices are not addressed in this Standard.


AWWA F110-2016

Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems for Drinking Water

This standard sets the minimum requirements for closed-vessel ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems and equipment elements for drinking water disinfection of Cryptosporidium , Giardia , and viruses.


NSF/ANSI 360-2019

Wastewater Treatment Systems - Field Performance Verification

Establishes consistent site selection, sampling, laboratory analysis and data evaluation methods for obtaining field performance results for onsite wastewater treatment systems.


NSF/ANSI 245-2018

Residential Wastewater Treatment Systems - Nitrogen Reduction

Establishes minimum materials, design and construction, and performance requirements for residential wastewater treatment systems providing for nitrogen reduction. This Standard also specifies the minimum literature that manufacturers shall supply to authorized representatives and owners, as well as the minimum service-related obligations that manufacturers shall extend to owners.


ASTM E2060-06(2014)

Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products for Solidification/Stabilization of Inorganic Wastes

1.1 This guide covers methods for selection and application of coal combustion products (CCPs) for use in the chemical stabilization of trace elements in wastes and wastewater. These elements include, but are not limited to, arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc. Chemical stabilization may be accompanied by solidification of the waste treated. Solidification is not a requirement for the stabilization of many trace elements, but does offer advantages in waste handling and in reduced permeability of the stabilized waste. 1.2 The CCPs that are suited to this application include fly ash, spent dry scrubber sorbents, and certain advanced sulfur control by-products from processes such as duct injection and fluidized-bed combustion (FBC). 1.3 The wastes or wastewater, or both, containing the problematic inorganic species will likely be highly variable, so the chemical characteristics of the waste or wastewater to be treated must be determined and considered in the selection and application of any stabilizing agent, including CCPs. In any waste stabilization process, laboratory-scale tests for compatibility between the candidate waste or wastewater for stabilization with one or more selected CCPs and final waste stability are recommended prior to full-scale application of the stabilizing agent. 1.4 This guide does not intend to recommend full-scale processes or procedures for waste stabilization. Full-scale processes should be designed and carried out by qualified scientists, engineers, and environmental professionals. It is recommended that stabilized materials generated at the full-scale stabilization site be subjected to testing to verify laboratory test results.


ASTM D5919-96(2017)

Standard Practice for Determination of Adsorptive Capacity of Activated Carbon by a Micro-Isotherm Technique for Adsorbates at ppb Concentrations

1.1 This practice covers the assessment of activated carbon for the removal of low concentrations of adsorbable constituents from water and wastewater using the bottle point isotherm technique. It can be used to characterize the adsorptive properties of virgin and reactivated activated carbons. 1.2 This practice can be used in systems with constituent concentrations in the low milligrams per litre or micrograms per litre concentration ranges. 1.3 This practice can be used to determine the adsorptive capacity of and Freundlich constants for volatile organic compounds provided the handling procedures described in this practice are followed carefully. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 The following safety caveat applies to the procedure section of this practice: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM D4994-19

Standard Practice for Recovery of Viruses from Wastewater Sludges

1.1 This practice is used for the recovery of viruses from wastewater sludges and favors the enteroviruses. 1.2 Both procedures are applicable to raw, digested, and dewatered sludges. 1.3 This practice was tested on standardized sludges as described in 10.1 . It is the user's responsibility to ensure the validity of this practice for untested matrices. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.6 Only adequately trained personnel should be allowed to perform these procedures and should use safety precautions recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, 2 for work with potentially hazardous biological organisms. 1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D5905-98(2018)

Standard Practice for the Preparation of Substitute Wastewater

1.1 This practice covers the preparation of an aqueous mixture containing constituents in concentrations such that it will have physical and chemical matrix characteristics similar to municipal wastewater. 1.2 Wastewaters are extremely variable, depending on the quantity and nature of the materials being discharged into the collection system. The mixture prepared with this practice is not representative of any particular wastewater. Rather, it allows the user to prepare a mixture that exhibits a similar matrix impact on test method performance as is typical of municipal wastewater and can be prepared from common materials inexpensively and reproducibly. It allows the evaluation of test methods, over time, against the same reference point. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


AWWA C670-2015

Online Chlorine Analyzer Operation and Maintenance

This standard describes the operation and maintenance of online chlorine analyzers used in the treatment and monitoring of potable water, reclaimed water, or wastewater. The standard provides minimum requirements for analyzer operation, maintenance, sampling, accuracy and precision testing, range, calibration, and troubleshooting.


ASCE MOP 98-2000

Conveyance of Residuals from Water and Wastewater Treatment

The treatment of water and wastewater results in the production of residual solids that must be handled. These solids typically are concentrated to reduce the water content before their beneficial use or disposal. As these solids are further processed and handled, their intrinsic properties-such as viscosity, rheology, flowability, and texture-change. Although much as been written to describe the chemical characteristics of these residuals, only limited information has been complied describing their handling characteristic and appropriate means of transport. The objective of this manual is to provide a reference document that the practitioner can use to determine the handling characteristics of residuals and to select appropriate conveyance systems. The monograph has been organized into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the manual and describes a procedure for classifying residuals according to their transport properties. Chapter 2 describes the rheology, the types of water associated with the solids, and transport properties. Chapter 3 discusses the composition and characteristics of residuals as a function of how they are generated. Chapter 4 provides a comprehensive compilation of the types of equipment available for residuals transport, with photographs and illustrations. Chapters 5 through 8 provide guidance on the type of equipment that can be used for each of the major classifications of residuals: non-Newtonian slurries, thickened residuals, dewatered residuals, and granular and compactable residuals. Chapter 9 presents four case studies, highlighting lessons learned from actual operating installations.


NSF/ANSI 240-2017

Drainfield Trench Product Sizing for Gravity Dispersal Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Dispersal Systems

Establishes minimum material, design, construction, and performance requirements for comparing gravity dispersal drainfield products based on hydraulic performance used in place of conventional coarse aggregate within onsite wastewater treatment and dispersal systems.


ASTM D4472-08(2014)

Standard Guide for Recordkeeping for Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Systems

1.1 This guide covers procedures for well-defined recordkeeping of reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) systems. 1.2 This guide includes a start-up report, recordkeeping of RO and NF operating data, recordkeeping of pretreatment operating data, and a maintenance log. 1.3 This guide is applicable to waters including brackish waters and seawaters but is not necessarily applicable to wastewaters. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ASTM D7285-06(2017)

Standard Guide for Recordkeeping Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Systems

1.1 This guide covers procedures for well-defined recordkeeping of microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) systems. 1.2 This guide includes a start-up report, recordkeeping of MF/UF operating data, recordkeeping of pretreatment operating data, and a maintenance log. 1.3 This guide is applicable to waters including surface water, ground water and some wastewater (secondary effluent) but is not applicable to membrane bioreactors or process streams. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM D6249-19

Standard Guide for Alkaline Stabilization of Wastewater Treatment Plant Residuals

1.1 This document provides guidance for use of reactive alkaline materials (quicklime, hydrated lime, high lime fly ash, or other byproducts) for treating wastewater solids (biosolids) to reduce pathogen levels and achieve compliance with regulatory requirements. Federal (40 CFR, Part 503) regulations for use or disposal of biosolids became effective on March 22, 1993; refer to USEPA regulations and guidance documents for information on other treatment processes or for specific requirements for use or disposal of biosolids. 1.2 Additional requirements may be imposed by individual states, and these are available through state regulatory agencies that issue permits for treatment and use or disposal, or both, of biosolids. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This guide does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


ASTM C1571-03(2012)

Standard Guide for Characterization of Radioactive and/or Hazardous Wastes for Thermal Treatment

1.1 This guide identifies methods to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes before a waste is processed at high temperatures, for example, vitrification into a homogeneous glass ,glass-ceramic, or ceramic waste form. This includes waste forms produced by ex-situ vitrification (ESV), in-situ vitrification (ISV), slagging, plasma-arc, hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) and/or cold-pressing and sintering technologies. Note that this guide does not specifically address high temperature waste treatment by incineration but several of the analyses described in this guide may be useful diagnostic methods to determine incinerator off-gas composition and concentrations. The characterization of the waste(s) recommended in this guide can be used to ( 1 ) choose and develop the appropriate thermal treatment methodology, ( 2 ) determine if waste pretreatment is needed prior to thermal treatment, ( 3 ) aid in development of thermal treatment process control, ( 4 ) develop surrogate waste formulations, ( 5 ) perform treatability studies, ( 6 ) determine processing regions (envelopes) of acceptable waste form composition, ( 7 ) perform pilot scale testing with actual or surrogate waste, and/or ( 8 ) determine the composition and concentrations of off-gas species for regulatory compliance. The analyses discussed in this standard can be performed by a variety of techniques depending on equipment availability. For example, Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) can be used to measure the amount and type of off-gas species present. However, this standard assumes that such sophisticated equipment is unavailable for radioactive or hazardous waste service due to potential contamination of the equipment. The analyses recommended are, therefore, the simplest and least costly analyses that can be performed and still be considered adequate 1.2 This guide is applicable to radioactive and/or hazardous wastes including but not limited to, high-level wastes, low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU) wastes, hazardous wastes, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes, heavy metal contaminated wastes, and naturally occurring or accelerator produced radioactive material (NARM or NORM) wastes. These wastes can be in the physical form of wet sludges, dried sludges, spent waste water filter aids, waste water filter cakes, incinerator ashes (wet or dry), incinerator blowdown (wet or dry), wastewaters, asbestos, resins, zeolites, soils, unset or unsatisfactory cementitious wastes forms in need of remediation, lead paint wastes, etc. and combinations of the above. This guide may not be applicable to piping, duct work, rubble, debris waste or wastes containing these components. 1.3 This guide references applicable test methods that can be used to characterize hazardous wastes, radioactive wastes, and heavy metal contaminated process wastes, waste forms, NARM or NORM wastes, and soils. 1.4 These test methods must be performed in accordance with all quality assurance requirements for acceptance of the data. 1.5 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


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