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ASTM D4914/D4914M-16

Standard Test Methods for Density of Soil and Rock in Place by the Sand Replacement Method in a Test Pit


1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the in-place density of soil and rock using a pouring device and calibrated sand to determine the volume of a test pit. The word “rock” in these test methods is used to imply that the material being tested will typically contain particles larger than 3 in. [75 mm].

1.2 These test methods are best suited for test pits with a volume from 0.03 to 0.17 m3 [1 to 6 ft3]. In general, the materials tested would have a maximum particle size of 75 to 125 mm [3 to 5 in.].

1.3 Two test methods are provided as follows:...

1.4 Selection of Test Methods: 

1.5 Any materials that can be excavated with hand tools can be tested provided that the void or pore openings in the mass are small enough (or a liner is used) to prevent the calibrated sand used in the test from entering the natural voids. The material being tested should have sufficient cohesion or particle interlocking to maintain stable sides during excavation of the test pit and through completion of this test. It should also be firm enough not to deform or slough due to the minor pressures exerted in digging the hole and pouring the sand.

1.6 These test methods are generally limited to material in an unsaturated condition and are not recommended for materials that are soft or friable (crumble easily) or in a water condition such that water seeps into the hand-excavated hole. The accuracy of the test methods may be affected for materials that deform easily or that may undergo volume change in the excavated hole from standing or walking near the hole during the test.

1.7 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound presented in brackets are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.


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ASTM International [astm]

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