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Cameras and Photography

Camera and photography standards provide the most widely accepted industry practices for still images and film. They cover a variety of aspects ranging from performance specifications of modern cameras like noise, image flare, exposure, and ISO ratings. Because photography is subject to many aspects of the environment in which a photograph is taken, the standards listed can help adjust for many of these factors to ensure the best quality image and technical aspects for manufacturing an excellent camera.

ISO 14524:2009

Photography - Electronic still-picture cameras - Methods for measuring opto-electronic conversion functions (OECFs)

ISO 14524:2009 specifies methods for the measurement of opto-electronic conversion functions (OECFs) of electronic still-picture cameras whose output is encoded as a digital image file. The OECF is defined as the relationship between the focal plane log exposures or scene log luminances, and the digital output levels of an opto-electronic digital image capture system.

ISO 14524:2009 applies to both monochrome and colour electronic still picture cameras.

ISO 12233:2017

Photography - Electronic still picture imaging - Resolution and spatial frequency responses

ISO 12233:2017 specifies methods for measuring the resolution and the SFR of electronic still-picture cameras. It is applicable to the measurement of both monochrome and colour cameras which output digital data or analogue video signals.

ISO 19264-1:2021

Photography - Archiving systems - Imaging systems quality analysis - Part 1: Reflective originals

This document describes a method for analysing imaging systems quality in the area of cultural heritage imaging. The method described analyses multiple imaging systems quality characteristics from a single image of a specified test target. The specification states which characteristics are measured, how they are measured, and how the results of the analysis need to be presented.

This specification applies to scanners and digital cameras used for digitization of cultural heritage material.

NOTE       This document addresses imaging of reflective originals, a future part two will address imaging of transparent originals.

ISO 15739:2017

Photography - Electronic still-picture imaging - Noise measurements

ISO 15739:2017 specifies methods for measuring and reporting the noise versus signal level and dynamic range of digital still cameras. It applies to both monochrome and colour electronic digital still cameras.

NEMA NU 1-2018

Performance Measurements of Gamma Cameras

Provides a uniform criterion for the measurement and reporting of gamma camera performance parameters for single and multiple crystal cameras and tomographic devices that image a section or reconstruction image volume, or both.

ISO 18844:2017

Photography - Digital cameras - Image flare measurement

ISO 18844:2017 specifies the definition of image flare for digital cameras, test patterns, measurement conditions, and methods, so as to enable the comparison of the results of measurement.

The methods of measurement are designed to enable the assessment of the performance of digital cameras by using image data output by the digital cameras.

ISO 18844:2017 does not specify the aim values or the allowable range of value for the image flare.

ISO 12232:2019

Photography - Digital still cameras - Determination of exposure index, ISO speed ratings, standard output sensitivity, and recommended exposure index

This document specifies the method for assigning and reporting ISO speed ratings, ISO speed latitude ratings, standard output sensitivity values, and recommended exposure index values, for digital still cameras. It is applicable to both monochrome and colour digital still cameras.

ISO 23450:2021

Dentistry - Intraoral camera

This document specifies requirements and test methods for intraoral cameras used in dentistry on patients for pictorial representation of oral cavities in order to support diagnosis and facilitate patient information. It specifies requirements, test methods, instructions for use and marking.

This document is not applicable to:

a) powered polymerization activators for polymerization of dental materials;

b) exclusively extraoral camera equipment to prepare overviews or to record treatments;

c) dental microscopes for minimally invasive treatments;

d) medical endoscopes;

e) camera handpieces for tooth illumination (transillumination);

f) CAD or CAM scanner handpieces;

g) combinations of dental instruments with camera functions;

h) cameras for endodontic purposes;

i) devices for root canal inspection (endoscopic microcameras);

j) cameras for tool navigation;

k) cameras for determination of tooth colour.

ISO 19093:2018

Photography - Digital cameras - Measuring low-light performance

This document specifies a protocol to measure the low-light performance of a camera. It is applicable to the measurement of digital cameras including camera phones and other mobile devices.

The performance aspects defined in this document are intended to all be tested. Picking one or some of them by the tester is out of scope of the usage of this document.


As the voice of the U.S. standards and conformity assessment system, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) empowers its members and constituents to strengthen the U.S. marketplace position in the global economy while helping to assure the safety and health of consumers and the protection of the environment.